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Flashcards in Lecture 18 Deck (18):
1

There are up to _ million deaths a year of malaria

1

2

What are the obstancles to combating Malaria?

No highly effecive control measures

No Vaccine available yet

Drug resistance widespread and increasing

Insecticide resistance

Economic, social and political facrors

3

In Plasmodium knowlsei the mosquito is infected by feeding on _______

monkeys

4

Uncomplicated malaria presents clinically as ..

Flulike" illness

5

what are the clinical features of malaria?

Severe anemia

Cerebral complications (coma, convulsions)

Respiratory distress and metabolic acidosis



6

What is the treatment of mild malaria?

short course of anti -malarial tablets

There is another drug to target latent cells in liver cells

7

what is the treatment for servere Malaria?

Anti-malarials (IV) as well as quinine

Intensive care treatments

8

What are the 3 types of immunity for Malaria

1. Immunity that prevents severe infection

2. Immunity that prevent any malaria

3. Immunity to Malaria in pregnancy

9

What are some Parasitic factors for slow development of immunity?

Multple antigenic targets (~5000 genes)

Antigenic diversity:major targets slwo substantial polymorphism

Anigenic variation: gene families allow swithhcing to evade

10

What are some Host factors for slow development of immunity?

Inadequate response (esp. young children)

Non-functional/ irrelevant responses

Poor development of memory responses

11

Illness is essentially from unrestricted ______ in the bloodstream leading to....

Illness is essentially from Unrestricted replication in the bloodstream leading to....

Malarial parasites accumulate in vital organs

Inflamm. response

Desruction of RBCs

12

parasites with no PfEMP1 will not have much antibody recognition, meaning it is the main...

target for the immun response

13

There are ______ of different var genes that exist in nature

Thousansd of var genes

14

Match the var PfEMP1 expression to the adhesive molecules they target

var a
var b
var c
var d
var e

Match the var PfEMP1 expression to the adhesive molecules they target

var a - CD36
var b - CSA
var c - CD36 & ICAM-1
var d - HS & CR1
var e - other

15

The main action of antibodies involves

To merozoites: inhibit RBC invasion and growth

to infected RBCs: Opsonization for phagocytosis

16

A specific variant of PfEMP1 is important for placental infection it is...

what does it do?

var2csa

Mediates adhesion of parasitised RBCs to receptors in the placenta
- Primary receptor is a carbohydrate (CSA, chondroitin sulfate A)

17

Little immunity to ____ is acquired before pregnancy

Little immunity to var2csa is acquired before pregnancy

18

var2csa enables parsitised RBCs to accumulate in large numbers in the ______

placenta

evades existing immunity