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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (23):
1

What are the 5 major groups of microbes exploited in industrial microbiology, and if specified what are they used to produce?

Actinomycetes - antibiotics and amino acids
Cyanobacteria - potential renewable food stuffs in future
Proteobacteria

Fungal yeasts
Filamentous fungi

2

What 4 possible products from microbes do we use?

MIcrobial cells (broken up or whole)
Products from cells:
Enzymes
Primary metabolic products
2ndry metabolic products

3

Examples of specific products from cells because I know how much you love your examples

enzymes - glucose isomerase
Antibiotics - penicillen
food additives - amino acids
alcohol - ethanol
chemicals - citric acid

4

Name 4 uses of microbial cells as a whole, give details where poss

food stuffs (Quorn)
Whole cell biotransformation - 'cell factories' (often living but not growing cells)
Why good: work at low temps, few side products, normally specific, grown in aqueous rather than organic solvents. If whole metabolic pathways are undisturbed.
Removing nuclear waste - resting cells of Desulfovibrio desulfricans precipitate 99Tc (waste product of nuclear fuel cycle with long half life) and immobilise it
Steriod production and purification - Rhizopus Arrhizus and Curvularia Lunata covert basic (cheap steroid) to cortisol

5

What are the 2 ways to get enzymes from microbes?

Direct extraction
expressed as recombinant protein

6

Main benefits of enzymes

specificity
efficiency under optimum conditions
producing them, is very rapid
growth conditions and materials inexpensive

7

Define bulk enzyme

partially purified

8

Give 2 examples of them and their uses

Detergenets - proteases and lipases
clothe colour improvement - cellulases (strips off outer layer)
Sweet making - Intvertases

9

What's the other type of enzyme used, other than bulk

purified recombinant enzyme

10

Examples of recombination purified enzymes and uses

Restriction endonucleases - used to make other enzymes and proteins
Glucose oxidase - test blood sugar - diagnostics
cholesterol esterase - monitoring cholesterol levels - diagnostics

11

When are primary metabolites made?

majority of the time in the cell's life cycle

12

4 most important primary metabolites

purine nucleotides
vitamins
organic acids
amino acids

13

Main use of amino acids and the 3 main required

food additives
Glutamate, lysine, tryptophan

14

What is primarily used for making aa's

gram +ve bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

15

Why must 2ndry metabs be grown in particular ways or genetically engineered?

only produced at particular time in cell life, often in periods of stress

16

What is the main example of a biopolymer and it's use in the EU

bacterial exopollysaccharide xanthan gum - a thickner

17

What's exg made by?

Xanthomonas sp. and X. campestris (in lab) as a defense mechanism

18

properties of exg

soluble in hot or cold water, high viscosity at low concs, secreted (-therefore extraction theoretically easy but actually very viscous so tricky)

19

What did Fleming originally observe to discover penecillin

Penecillium notatum killed Staph. a.

20

How did scientists get around the problem of low yield produced by P. notatum

Discovered P. chrysogenum

21

Where were more antibiotics discovered and of those that they make what's the most well known AB called?

soil bacteria collectively called Actinomycetes.
Streptomycin

22

How are new antibiotics being discovered and made?

- metagenomics used to find novel clusters of genes for antibiotic synthesis. These are then expressed in a heterologous host and screen for new antibiotics.
- use gene shuffling to biologically modify ab

23

How are antibiotics made currently?

fermentation for natural and semi synthetic abs.