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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (41):
1

Frontal Lobe : posterior

Motor cortex: responsible for planning and controlling voluntary mvmnts on contralateral side

2

Frontal Lobe: Dominant frontal lobe

usually left; Broca's area

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Frontal lobe: anterior

planning, concentration, brining ideas and memories together to carry out goal directed behaviors
also influences personality, insight, initiative, morality, impulse control and appropriate emotional display

4

anterior parietal lobe

perception of somatosensory info from contralateral side of head, neck and extremities

5

temporoparietal association area

integrates sensory inputs with memory and emotion (allows us to recognize patterns in our sensory experiences)
-plays role in spatial orientation

6

Post-Inf parietal lobe and sup. temporal lobe

Wernicke's area

7

Occipital lobe: 2 main areas

perception of visual info
1) primary visual cortex: post pole (makes us aware of stimuli)
2) visual association area (visual stimuli are analyzed)

8

Temporal lobe: sup regions

primary auditory complex and auditory association areas

9

Temporal lobe: inf parts

assist occipital lobe in higher order processing of vision

10

Temporal lobe: medial parts

contains hippocampus and amygdala: memory and learning

11

Limbic lobe

not distinct anatomic location; important for emotional responses and active behaviors

12

Cerebellum

provides motor programs for controlling timing and sequencing of voluntary muscle contractions
-controls muscle tone, balance and equilibrium

13

Basal Ganglia

provides motor programs for complex, learned activity
-moduclates activity of cortical motor neurons so muscle tone is appropriate for any planned mvmnts

14

Brainstem

-contains pathways conducting sensory and motor input btwn cerebrum and spinal cord and btwn cerebrum and cerebellum
-contains groups of neurons (reticular formation) control major autonomic fxns: cardioresp reflexes, consciousness, balance and equilibrium
-also contains CN III-XII

15

Upper Motor Neurons

neurons within the cortical spinal tract that are found above the level of synapse (above the anterior horn in the spinal cord)

16

Upper motor neuron lesions: results and where they occur

produce: weakness and sensory loss, spasticity, no atrophy, no fasciculations, brisk reflexes and positive babinski
-cerebrum, subcortical area (white and grey matter), brainstem, spinal cord

17

Lower Motor Neurons

neurons within the cortical spinal tract that are found below the level of synapse (below the anterior horn in the spinal cord)

18

Lower Motor Neuron lesions: results and where they occur

produce: weakness and sensory loss, atrophy, fasciculations, decrease in reflexes, negative babinski
-occur in anterior horn cells, roots, plexus, nerves, neuromuscular jxn, muscle

19

Corticospinal tract: location, where it crosses over and where it synapses

Originate in the motor cortex (frontal lobe) and travel down to brainstem and medulla
-crosses over in medulla
-continues down to spinal cord where it synapses with the anterior horn cells

20

Corticalspinal tract fxns:

-mediate voluntary mvmnts
-integrate skilled, fine, complicated mvmnts
**L side in brain controls R side of body

21

Spinothalamic Tract: location, where it crosses over

-originates in the spinal cord : in the grey matter is where it synapses
-crosses over in the spinal cord

22

Spinothalamic tract fxns:

Crude touch, temp, and pain ; transmits these to the thalamus

23

Posterior column

-Sensory pathway: goes thru the posterior root into posterior column and travels back up spinal cord
-crosses over in the medulla
-fxn = fine touch, proprioception and vibration

24

Laterlization: Brain

Both motor and sensory are contralateral

25

Laterlization: Spinal Cord

-Corticalspinal and Post. Column are ipsilateral
-Spinothalamic: contralateral
* i think this is because post. column and cortical spinal cross over before spinal cord and spinothalamic crosses over at spinal cord

26

Subcortical Area includes:

Internal capsule
Thalamus
Basal Ganglia

27

Internal capsule lesions

shows: UMN weakness and sensory loss affecting contralateral face, upper extremity, lower extremity and hemibody

28

Difference btwn cortical and subcortical injuries

Cortical injuries: produce Both motor and sensory deficits

Subcortical injuries: produce pure motor OR sensory deficits

29

Thalamus lesion:

produces contralateral hemisensory loss

30

Basal Ganglia lesisons

produce contralateral mvmnt disorders:
-involuntary mvmnts: chorea, hemiballismus, athetosis
-dystonic muscle contractions
-Parkinsonism

31

Brainstem Lesion

IPSILATERAL CN deficit, accompanied by sensory &/or motor problems on the contralateral trunk and extremities

32

Common Brainstem Lesions

-CN III: ptosis, down and out, mydriasis
-CN VII: central vs peripheral:
--> central: UMN in tact, lower part of face affected
-->peripheral: LMN lesion; both upper and lower part of face is affected

33

dorsal right pons

gaze palsy when looking to right

34

Cerebellum lesion : hemisphere lesions

ataxia/incoordination on the SAME side as lesion

35

Cerebellum lesion: vermis lesions

result in wide based "drunken sailor" gait

36

Spinal Cord lesions

-sensory deficit and muscle weakness below level of spinal cord
-sensory deficit: both anteriorly and posteriorly
-acute lesion: DTRs diminished or absent
-slower in onset: increased muscle tone, hyperreflexia, and (+) babinski

37

Nerve Root lesions: Radiculopathy

LMN weakness, pain and sensory loss within one myotome or dermatome (in distribution of affected nerve root)

38

Plexus lesion: Plexopathy

LMN weakness and numbness in one limb that spans more than one nerve root
Like the brachial or lumbar plexus

39

Neuropathy

affecting one specific nerve
examples: median nerve (carpal tunnel)

40

Neuromuscular Jxn lesions

No sensory deficits
weakness and fatigue, but does not follow myotonal pattern

41

Muscle lesions

weakness and fatigue: proximal > distal
No sensory deficits