Lecture 2-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2-3 Deck (56):
1

what are the 2 types of religion definitions

narrow and broad

2

what is included in narrow definitions

Insider view and outsider view

3

what is Insider view:

specific beliefs and practices as definitive of religion modelled on one’s own faith

4

what is Outsider view:

specific characterizations applied to all religions

5

why is Outsider view narrow

Narrow because the generalization said to constitute religion (gods, scriptures ,sin, afterlife, etc.) resemble worldviews of Abrahamic or theistic origin

6

what is the problem with narrow definitions

validates specific types of religiosity

wont include religions that dont have gods but are still religions

7

who is Paul Tillich

an insider to Protestant Christianity

8

what did Paul Tillich try to do

aimed to provide a general definition for both outsiders and insiders to a tradition, laypeople and scholars alike

9

how does Paul Tillich describe religion

Grasped by ultimate concern; ultimate reality. Concern with Allah=concern with attaining moksha = concern with attaining nirvana

10

what is the problem with broad definitions

too inclusive of political ideologies, sports, or artistic practices

11

what are the Important points of defining religion

Definition is an important tool in academic study of religion
Narrow and broad definitions while useful for identifying certain aspects of religion, necessarily fall short of capturing their complexity

12

what is meant by Definition is an important tool in academic study of religion

Ithelpsonetoidentifythegeneralcharacteristicsandfunctionsofwhatonecalls ”religious”. (See p. 3)
• It helps those who take an interest in religion to explain why it exists and how it shapes the world around us, in good or bad ways. Commonly, people that identify as religious assume knowledge of their faith and they do so in a variety of ways, mechanically or passionately. Defining religion in that way will have different connotations and objectives when compared to the academic pursuit

13

what are some general characteristics of religion

• religion is a concern with powers or agents deemed to exist beyond what we know through the senses;
• religious reality for believers is considered larger than the ordinary reality studied by the sciences;
• religious reality consists of things considered sacred or holy, “set apart” from non- sacred reality, eliciting behaviors different from those appropriate to non-sacred reality

14

what constitutes this reality

• for some, it’s populated by gods, angels, demons;
• for others, such entities are precisely what clouds true perceptions about ultimate reality;
• innumerable dissensions and attitudes exist as to what is sacred about or appropriate (hence inappropriate) to entertain concerning religious reality

15

in general, what are The problems surrounding definition

not specific to the study of religion. All fields have this issue. It’s predominately a boundary question: what sets off one one form of study from another

16

what is Religious education

the “teaching of” the norms of a tradition—a practice performed by insiders to a tradition for those inside that tradition (p. 6)

17

what traits are in Religious education

Exclusivist and inclusivist traits

18

While in certain respects religious education can be positive to both insiders and outsiders to a tradition, it can also harbor what

degrees of animosity toward other traditions and different belief systems

19

Religious education is fundamentally a what issue

an identity issue; how to impact the world, how to change the world

20

what Religious studies

“teaching about” religion descriptively

21

what traits are in religious studies

Pluralistic traits, if you will (contrasted with the exclusivist and inclusivist traits of religious education)

22

what does religious studies have

Healthy measure of neutrality toward religion(s)— Or: the objectivity- isn’t-perfect-but-it’s-the-best-thing-academics-have approach!J
• “Critical, self-reflexive stance” (p. 7): a “high level of awareness” that is both empathetic and critical at the same time
• imaginative projection

23

when did R.G. Collingwood live

(1889-1943)

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who was R.G. Collingwood

British philosopher and practicing archaeologist

25

what is imaginative projection

“Imaginative projection” = R&H’s (authors) “subjective engagement”: “It is imperative for religious studies students to try to understand as much as possible about the worldview of the religions they are studying and to enter into it through a temporary suspension of disbelief in order to resonate with the experience of some of the sentiments felt by adherents of that religion” (R&H, p. 8)

26

what is the distinction between religious education and religious studies

by contrasting theology (study of the gods) and metaphysics (study of what’s beyond physics) from religious studies

27

what is Theology compared to metaphysics

is apologetical

28

what is metaphysics in comparison to theology

metaphysics is speculative.

29

Religious education is often theological and metaphysical, which in your text tends to mean what

not as critically self-reflexive or as methodologically pluralistic as religious studies

30

what is the professor's beef with this segment; Your text further sizes up the distinction between religious education and religious studies by contrasting theology (study of the gods) and metaphysics (study of what’s beyond physics) from religious studies. Theology, they conclude, is apologetical and metaphysics is speculative. Religious education is often theological and metaphysical, which in your text tends to mean: not as critically self-reflexive or as methodologically pluralistic as religious studies

The text portrays theology in rather polarizing ways as defensive and speculative.I t’s simplistic to think theology is merely an exercise in apologetics (p. 10). Theologians can be highly self-critical and disruptive of the values and norms of their tradition.
• Religious studies as “imaginative projection”and“self-reflexive” is itself an apology for a worldview advocated by academics, a model based on the values and norms of the Enlightenment and western liberal democracy

31

what is religious education

the “teaching of” the norms of a tradition

32

who does religion education

a practice performed by insiders to a tradition for those inside that tradition

33

what traits does religious education have

Exclusivist and inclusivist traits

34

Religious education is fundamentally a what

an identity issue, how to impact the world, how to change the world

35

While in certain respects religious education can be positive to both insiders and outsiders to a tradition, it can also harbor degrees of what

While in certain respects religious education can be positive to both insiders and outsiders to a tradition, it can also harbor degrees of animosity toward other traditions and different belief systems

36

what is Religious studies

“teaching about” religion descriptively

37

what kind of traits does Religious studies have

Pluralistic traits, if you will (contrasted with the exclusivist and inclusivist traits of religious education)

38

what should you have in religious studies

Healthy measure of neutrality toward religion(s)—Or: the objectivity- isn’t-perfect-but-it’s-the-best-thing-academics-have approach!J
• “Critical, self-reflexive stance” (p. 7): a “high level of awareness” that is both empathetic and critical at the same time
• Imaginative projection

39

religious studies strive to examine what

all aspects of a religion or religions

40

who is R.G Collingwood

British philosopher and practicing archaeologist, came up wth imaginative projection

41

what is imaginitive projection

Imaginitive projection; a type of objectivity that people in the social sciences and humanities try to embody
comes from british philosopher mentioned below

“Imaginative projection” = R&H’s “subjective engagement”: “It is imperative for religious studies students to try to understand as much as possible about the worldview of the religions they are studying and to enter into it through a temporary suspension of disbelief in order to resonate with the experience of some of the sentiments felt by adherents of that religion” (R&H, p. 8).

you basically project this empathy into what you are analysisng an trying to withhold your personal views

42

what is another example of imaginative projection

In assessing a religion there is merit in imagining what it would be like (or what it is like) to hold the religious beliefs and to adopt the religious life that is being studied ... [F]or one who is committed to exploring a religion in depth it is useful to try to see matters from the inside. [In order to do this effectively] ... one must also see a religion from the outside

see; the basis of all definitions is that it is not completely possible, you can just attempt to enter a near-state where you distance yourself and just try to describe other beliefs

43

what is Religionswissenschaft

Science of Religion

44

define "imaginative projection"

is a subjective element for being “objective” in religious studies. As such, it qualifies the view that studying religion is purely objective, is “science” as commonly understood

45

is the science of religion a science

yes

46

is the scientific method a good method for religion

[T]he ‘scientific method’ is not the most appropriate approach to the subject, and so the term [Religionswissenschaft] has had limited appeal ... [T]here has been, and continues to be, a wide assortment of perspectives and approaches with which to study human religiosity

47

are human culture and physical properties the same (when trying to interpret them)

Interpreting human culture is not the same thing as trying to explain the physical properties of nature, human and/or nonhuman

48

what is the "right" way to study religion

there is not one

49

when we look at traditions, how do we look at them

Itemizing religions as monoliths, “Hinduism,” “Buddhism,” “Daoism,” “Judaism,” “Christianity,” “Islam,” etc. is a matter of convenience

50

if "Itemizing religions as monoliths, “Hinduism,” “Buddhism,” “Daoism,” “Judaism,” “Christianity,” “Islam,” etc. is a matter of convenience" os true, what is the reality

The true nature of religion is far more complex

51

Scholars prefer to categorize religions by what

region rather than tradition, e.g., Japanese religions, East or South Asian religions, which can be an amalgam of different traditions: “in parts of East Asia, Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism can be deeply intertwined”

In religious studies religions are studied in terms of their locale, not in terms of isolated beliefs and practices as in religious education

52

what is the problem with labelling things like "Eastern" and "Western" religions

The vast majority of so-called Western religions (the Abrahamic traditions) are practiced in Eastern countries and even originated in the Middle East

53

what is a problem with studying traditions

What to include or exclude
• Existing religions? Past or dead religions?
• Understanding Sikhism without knowledge of Islam and Hinduism; Christianity without Judaism, Islam without both? etc. etc

Innumerable sects and subgroups
• Sunnis and Shi’ites (etc.); Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants, Latter Day Saints; Hasidim, Reform, Conservative; Mahayana, Theravada, etc. etc. etc.

54

what is monolith

singular

55

what is Rodrigues and Harding’s pragmatism

Religions boil down to individual beliefs and practices, which is impossible to categorize. However, to avoid categories would be to render the study of religion itself— anything for that matter—impossible

56

what is the solution?

Critical and self-reflexive search for broad categories with distinct, if minimal research objectives