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0

the 3 most common toxic substances to be seen in small animal hospitals

rodenticide
ethylene glycol
organo phosphates (pesticides)

1

what systems do you evaluate immediately upon presentation:

cardiovascular
respiratory
hemorrhage
seizures
hypothermia

2

if animal is hypoventilating indicated by _________ and _______ what should you do?

indicated by hypercapnia (PCO2 > 45mmHg) and acidosis (pH = 7.35) you should ventilate with room air

3

for hypoxemia indicated by ______ treat with _______.

indicated by PaO2 < 65mmHg treat with 40% oxygen

4

to treat seizures (hyperactivity) what type of drug should you give? what are 3 examples?

GABA a-receptor agonists
diazepam
phenobarb
methocarbamol (causes skeletal muscle relaxation)

5

what two procedures can help prevent oral toxicant absorption?

emesis and activated charcoal

6

when should you induce emesis?

- in a clinically normal and stable animal
- should do within 60 minutes of known toxic ingestion
- intubate, wash stomach 3 - 4 times with warm water or until fluid is clear.

7

what are the contraindications for emesis?

- if substance is suspected to be corrosive
- if undergoing seizures or convulsions
- in horses, ruminants, rodents or rabbits or birds
- unconscious subjects

8

when would you use activated charcoal/

for organo compounds.

9

how does activated charcoal work?

it tightly bonds and chelates the toxicants and sequesters them in the GI tract until they can be removed.

10

when is activated charcoal contraindicated?

for corrosive agents
or ethylene glycol or Fe bc charcoal cannot bind to those compounds

11

vomiting removes _____ of stomach contents

40 - 50%

12

what is a cathartic?

helps moves things thru GI tract - increases rate of bowel movements

13

what is a cathartic commonly used with and why?

its commonly used with activated charcoal to decrease GI transit time, increase movement of toxin-charcoal complex, and decrease possible absorption of the toxin

14

what is an example of antidote?

vitamin K for rodenticide

15

what is an anion gap?

the ratio between cations and anions

16

cations =

Na and K

17

anions =

bicarb and Cl

18

significance of anion gap

the bigger the gap, the more of an indication that there is an acidosis response and the blood is becoming acidified. the more cations than anions in the blood, the bigger the gap and the more severe the acidosis is.

19

what are the common toxins associated with an increased anion gap?

1. ethylene glycol
2. ethanol
3. iron
4. methanol
5. salicylates (aspirin)
6. strychnine

20

what is an example of an emetic agent?

apomorphine

21

what is an emetic agent commonly used in cats

xylazine

22

when do you perform a gastric lavage?

as a last stitch effort - you do this when you are potentially dealing with a fatality. there is risk of perofrmation/rupture

23

what are examples of emesis products you can use at home?

salt water, hydrogen peroxide

24

when do you do whole-bowel irrigation?

for toxins that are not absorbed by activated charcoal