Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (25)
the 3 most common toxic substances to be seen in small animal hospitals
organo phosphates (pesticides)
what systems do you evaluate immediately upon presentation:
if animal is hypoventilating indicated by _________ and _______ what should you do?
indicated by hypercapnia (PCO2 > 45mmHg) and acidosis (pH = 7.35) you should ventilate with room air
for hypoxemia indicated by ______ treat with _______.
indicated by PaO2 < 65mmHg treat with 40% oxygen
to treat seizures (hyperactivity) what type of drug should you give? what are 3 examples?
GABA a-receptor agonists
methocarbamol (causes skeletal muscle relaxation)
what two procedures can help prevent oral toxicant absorption?
emesis and activated charcoal
when should you induce emesis?
- in a clinically normal and stable animal
- should do within 60 minutes of known toxic ingestion
- intubate, wash stomach 3 - 4 times with warm water or until fluid is clear.
what are the contraindications for emesis?
- if substance is suspected to be corrosive
- if undergoing seizures or convulsions
- in horses, ruminants, rodents or rabbits or birds
- unconscious subjects
when would you use activated charcoal/
for organo compounds.
how does activated charcoal work?
it tightly bonds and chelates the toxicants and sequesters them in the GI tract until they can be removed.
when is activated charcoal contraindicated?
for corrosive agents
or ethylene glycol or Fe bc charcoal cannot bind to those compounds
vomiting removes _____ of stomach contents
40 - 50%
what is a cathartic?
helps moves things thru GI tract - increases rate of bowel movements
what is a cathartic commonly used with and why?
its commonly used with activated charcoal to decrease GI transit time, increase movement of toxin-charcoal complex, and decrease possible absorption of the toxin
what is an example of antidote?
vitamin K for rodenticide
what is an anion gap?
the ratio between cations and anions
Na and K
bicarb and Cl
significance of anion gap
the bigger the gap, the more of an indication that there is an acidosis response and the blood is becoming acidified. the more cations than anions in the blood, the bigger the gap and the more severe the acidosis is.
what are the common toxins associated with an increased anion gap?
1. ethylene glycol
5. salicylates (aspirin)
what is an example of an emetic agent?
what is an emetic agent commonly used in cats
when do you perform a gastric lavage?
as a last stitch effort - you do this when you are potentially dealing with a fatality. there is risk of perofrmation/rupture
what are examples of emesis products you can use at home?
salt water, hydrogen peroxide