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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (45):


What is disease?

The impairment of optimal function or homeostasis of an organism as a result of structural or chemical alteration


Disease is a...


There are situations of acute trauma, of course, but for many/most situations, disease is a continuum being absolutely normal, and deceased.


What does CLASS-C stand for?

C - Color

L - Location

A - Appearance on cut surface

S - Size

S - Shape

C - Consistency


Clinical signs are...?

Clinical signs are issues that the animal presents with, upon gross examination.



Clinical diagnosis is...?

Clinical diagnosis is a diagnosis that encapsulates the data you have from the clinical signs, clinical evidence (like rads, blood work, etc), and necropsy


Necropsy is...?

Necropsy is a postmortem dissection/examination, both gross and microscopic.  It's a way to gather information about an animal that's died.


Gross lesion description is...?

Gross lesion is the description of a lesion, as a whole.  Sometimes it's one big lesion, sometimes it's many small lesions.


Histologic lesion description is...?

Histologic lesion description is what pathologists do; it's the microscopic examination of cells/tissue


Morphologic diagnosis is...?

All information, whether from gross lesion descriptions or morphologic lesion descriptions, are used to make a morphologic (shape/structural) diagnosis. 

It's kind of like tweeting what the diagnosis is: you have a limited number of characters, and you're trying to give a very specific answer to what you interpret the lesion, and the cause, to be


Etiological diagnosis is...?

Etiology is the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition.

An etiological diagnosis includes the name of a disease, which includes the identification of the causative agent, e.g. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.

When you say, "This is the cause of "x", and this is the lesion it's creating


Disease diagnosis is...?

Very similar to Etiological diagnosis.  Think of it as layman's terms for diseases; the way you would describe a disease when speaking to client vs. another vet.


Pathogenesis is...?

The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state

You're trying to connect the dots; trying to indicate the causality between one lesion to another, or to a biochemical situation.


What are the basic changes in pathology?

  1. Cell injury, degeneration, cell death
  2. Disturbances of circulation
  3. Inflammation
  4. Neoplasia
  5. Congenital defects and disturbances of growth


Why do we care about disturbances of circulation?

If there are disturbances to the blood flow or to the vascular supply, then there will be an impact on the cells that the blood vessels *should* have been supplying.


When do we see inflammation?

Inflammation results when there's alterations to cells, or when there's infections. 

Sometimes if there's necrosis due to trauma or neoplasia, that will bring on a whole round of inflammation


What is neoplasia's role in basic pathologic changes?

Neoplasia is a process unto itself, but it can also disturb adjacent cells to the point where they can have additional responses.  The adjacent cells could be crushed, or may be activated by the products that are made by a neoplasm.


Brief Microbiology review:

What is the function of the Mitochondria?

Power source of the cell


From Wikipedia: These structures are sometimes described as "the powerhouse of the cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as maintaining the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.


Brief Microbiology review:

What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?


sER is important in processing cellular products, and can easily take on excess water.  Distinct morphologic changes occur when the sER has taken on water.


From Wikipedia:  The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (abbreviated SER) has functions in several metabolic processes. It synthesizes lipids, phospholipids, and steroids. Cells which secrete these products, such as those in the testes, ovaries, and skin oil glands have a great amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It also carries out the metabolism of carbohydrates, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism. In muscle cells, it regulates calcium ion concentration. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant), and it serves different functions in each. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum also contains the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which converts glucose-6-phosphate to glucose, a step in gluconeogenesis. It is connected to the nuclear envelope and consists of tubules that are located near the cell periphery. These tubes sometimes branch forming a network that is reticular in appearance. In some cells, there are dilated areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows for an increased surface area to be devoted to the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.



Brief Microbiology review:

What does the nucleus contain?

The nucleus contains DNA


From Wikipedia: In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton (which includes nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.


Brief Microbiology review:

What is the function of a lysosome?

Lysosomes are primarily cellular wastebaskets, but are also a site where bacteria have figured out how to live long-term within a cell, and thereby evade the immune system.


From Wikipedia:  A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). They are structurally and chemically spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes, which are capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris. They are known to contain more than fifty different enzymes which are all active at an acidic environment of about pH 5. Thus they act as waste disposal system of the cell by digesting unwanted materials in the cytoplasm, both from outside of the cell and obsolete components inside the cell. For this function they are popularly referred to as "suicide bags" or "suicide sacs" of the cell. Further, lysosomes are responsible for cellular homeostasis for their involvements in secretion, plasma membrane repair, cell signalling and energy metabolism, which are related to health and diseases.


Brief Microbiology review:

What is the function of the cilia?

Cilia are imporant for individual cell purposes, and the loss of either cilia or microbilli can result in damage to that cell, and damage to the whole tissue


From Wikipedia:  A cilium (Latin for eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body.  There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile, or primary cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In eukaryotes, motile cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia.  Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to Eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length.


The lipid bilayer is a ___________ structure.

The lipid bilayer is a dynamic structure, and has lots of interaction with adjacent cells and the extracellular environment.

It contains many structures that are all related, and have an important role in the cell membrane (where you have a lot of cell surface enzymes).  There are many receptors, transport channels, etc, and if any of these are non-functional, they will have a direct impact on the cell.


Cell structures are _______  ________ to each other,

and have an ________ and ________ to them

Cell structures are tightly opposed to each other, and have an order and structure to them. 

Remember that the organelles are actually attached to each other via the cytoskeleton


What is immunohistochemistry?




(This is a little bit extra from lecture, she mentioned it but didn't expressly define it)


Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.


IHC is a big part of pathology, particularly when we're trying to diagnose a neoplasm.


Is it true that once a cell is injured, it can never recover and will die?

No.  Cell injury is not an automatic death sentence.  It's entirely possible that once the agent causing the injury/issue is removed, the cell can recover and may return to normal status. 


There are many causes of cell injury, both _______ and _______.


There's a ________ number of ways that cells can respond to injury.

There are many causes of cell injury, both extrinsic and intrinsic. 


There's a limited number of ways that cells can respond to injury.  That helps us, as pathologists, because we can categorize things more easily.


In response to stress, cells may:




In response to stress, cells may:

1. Adapt

2. Be reversibly injured

3. Die


How can cells adapt to stress?







How do cells adapt to stress?

1. Increase cell number, or hyperplasia

2. Increase cell size, or hypertrophy

3. Alter structure, or metaplasia

4. Dysplasia

5. Atrophy




What are the two ways that cells are reversibly injured, in response to stress?


Cells can be reversibly injured by:

Taking on increased water

Taking on increased lipids


What are the two ways that a cell can die, in response to stress?

A cell can die via necrosis or apoptosis


What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?


Necrosis is the death of a cell due to an outside agent.

Apoptosis is programmed cell death.


It's possible that are a result of adaptations, a cell develops a ___________ _______ or a _____________ ___________.

It's possible that as a result of adaptations, a cell develops a reversible lesion, or a residual lesion.


What is an example of a residual lesion?

Lipofuscin in the cat, in the central locular areas of adipose cells

They are basically an iron substance that leaves a brown pigmented presence in cells, particularly in the cytoplasm of some adipocytes in cats.

These are non-specific changes.  We see, "Wow, that cell's been through something" but it doesn't tell us what or why.

As per Wikipedia:  Lipofuscin is the name given to finely granular yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. It is considered to be one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells. It is specifically arranged around the nucleus, and is a type of lipochrome.


What is dysplasia?

Dysplasia - Abnormal pattern of tissue growth; usually refers to disorderly arrangement of cells within epithelium

As per Dr. F-W, cells that are no longer anywhere near the polarity that the normal structure formed


What is metaplasia?

Metaplasia - Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another; most commonly seen in epithelial tissue


What is hyperplasia?

Hyperplasia - increased cell number in a tissue


What is the difference between hyperplasia and hypertrophy?

Hyperplasia - increased cell number

Hypertrophy - increased cell size, but not number.

Hypertrophy is typically due to increased presence of an organelle



The normal cell..., adapted cell, injured cell, irreversibly injured cell, and dead cell are _________  ___________ along a continuum of function and structure.

The normal cell..., adapted cell, injured cell, irreversibly injured cell, and dead cell are inexact states along a continuum of function and structure.

It's really hard to point at a cell and say, "At this moment, this cell is in THIS state." 

States are overlapping.


What are some causes of cell injury?

Causes of cell injury:

  • Oxygen deficiency
  • Physical agents
  • Infectious agents
  • Nutritional deficiency/imbalance
  • Genetic derangment
  • Workload imbalance
  • Chemicals/drugs/toxins
  • Immunologic dysfunction
  • Aging


You may see a ____________ in cell _________, when there's cell injury.

You may see a decrease in cell function, when there's cell injury.

This is where your serum chemistry tests come in handy.  They may detect something early on, before radiographic evidence or even clinical signs.


Injured cells can be detected by:

A. Electron microscopy

B. Histology

C. Serum chemistry

D. Cytology

E.  All are true

Injured cells can be detected by:

A. Electron microscopy

B. Histology

C. Serum chemistry

D. Cytology

E.  All are true


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