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1

Search pattern for x-ray

Alignment
Bone density
Cartilage space
Soft tissue

2

3 components of alignment in x-ray search pattern

1. Skeletal architecture
2. Contour
3. Adjacent bones

3

2 components of bone density in x-ray search pattern

1. General & local changes
2. Trabecular structure

4

3 structures of cartilage space in x-ray search pattern

1. Joint space
2. Subchondral bone
3. Epiphyseal plates

5

4 components of soft tissue structures in search pattern for x-ray

1. Muscles
2. Fat pads & lines
3. Joint capsules
4. periosteum

6

Alignment:
What is "normal" for skeletal architecture

Normal size
Normal number

7

Alignment:
What is "abnormal" for skeletal architecture

1. Absent bones
2. Extra bones
3. Deformities
4. Fractures

8

Alignment:
What is "normal" for contour of bone?

Outline smooth and continuous

9

Alignment:
What is "abnormal" for contour of bone?

1. Spurs
2. Avulsions
3. Impaction

10

Alignment:
What is "normal" for alignment of adjacent bone?

1. Normal joint articulation
2. Normal spatial relationships

11

Alignment:
What is "abnormal" for alignment of adjacent bone?

1. Joint subluxations
2. Joint dislocation
3. Fracture
4. Past surgeries

12

Where are bone spurs often found?

Heel

13

How many growth plates do we initially have? How old are individuals with growth plates that are still forming?

7 growth plates
Ages 7-12

14

Bone density:
What is "normal" with general density?

1. Sufficient contrast between tissue (cortical brighter and more opaque than medullary area)
2. Sufficient contrast between cancellous and cortical bone

15

Bone density:
What is "abnormal" with general density?

1. Poor contrast between bone and soft tissue
2. Loss of cortical margin

16

Bone density:
What is "normal" with trabecular structure?

Normal...

17

Bone density:
What is "abnormal" with trabecular structure?

Altered trabecular appearance

18

Bone density:
What is "normal" with local density changes?

Sclerosis in weight bearing stress areas

19

Bone density:
What is "abnormal" with local density changes?

1. Excessive sclerosis- opaque
2. Reactive sclerosis
3. Osteophytes

20

What is sclerosis?

Thickening of the bone, more opaque

21

Cortical margin of the bone is more ______

Opaque

22

Trabecular lines through the bone can be seen with this condition

Osteoporosis

23

What is a "bone island?"

Sclerotic area- isolated in the bone... normal changes, just isolated to one spot

24

View of a stress fracture- ______ is visible, edge of bone not smooth

Lucency

25

With this condition, the cortical area is stripped of bone in the tibia/fibula

Hyperthyroidism

26

How can you tell if person has OA or RA in the hands?

RA typically B/L

27

Cartilage space:
What is "normal" with joint space?

Well preserved

28

Cartilage space:
What is "abnormal" with joint space?

Decreased or altered

29

Cartilage space:
What is "normal" with subchondral bone?

Smooth surface

30

Cartilage space:
What is "abnormal" with subchondral bone?

1. Excessive sclerosis
2. Erosion