Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Biological Molecules Deck (18):
Reaction that occurs when two molecules are joined together with the removal of water
Reaction that occurs when one molecules is split into two smaller molecules with the addition of water
Composition of a cell (4)
Inorganic ions 1
Small Organic molecules 3
Two types of monosaccharides
Aldehyde - Aldose
Ketone - Ketose
General formula of carbohydrates
4 chiral centres
Can be either D (right) or L (left) depending on where -OH group is placed on 5th carbon
D glucose gives a and b glucose.
a glucose when -OH pointing down on carbon 1
How is glucose suited to its function (4)
Soluble- easily transported around.
Small molecules – can diffuse across cell membranes.
Easily/quickly, respired/oxidised to produce ATP.
Can form maltose and glycogen.
Examples of Disacccharides (4)
Maltose (malt sugar) = α glucose + α glucose
Sucrose (milk sugar) = α glucose + fructose
Lactose (milk sugar) = α glucose + β galactose
Cellobiose = β glucose + β glucose
Oligosaccharides - BREAK DOWN THE NAME
- definition - 2 functions
Is a saccharide polymer containing a small number of monosaccharides
Monosaccharides and lipids - blood groups
Amino acids (7)
D (right) or L (left) form (L form are only used and formed in cells). Some D in walls of bacteria
D amino acids are used in therapy
Except glycine (R group is a H)
Peptide bonds and condensation reaction
Precursors to hormones
AA Precursors to hormones
Tyrosine —> Adrenaline (triggers glycogen breakdown)
Histidine —> Histamine (vasodilator)
Nucleic acids (6)
Sugar, base and phosphate
Pyrimidines (single ringed) - T and C
Purines (double ringed) - A and G
2 - A and T. 3 - G and C.
Nucleic acids made in 5’ to 3’ end
Bases joined by hydrogen bonds
Ester bonds/ esterification
A condensation reaction where -OH group of a carboxylic acid and the -OH of an alcohol produce an Ester.
Define triglyceride (1)
Functions of triglycerides (5)
One glycerol and three fatty acids (members of carboxylic acids)
2 fatty acids and a phosphate
Decreases fluidity of membrane
Increases flexibility of membrane
Reduces permeability for solubility molecules