Lecture 2 - Biological Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Biological Molecules Deck (18):
1

Condensation reaction

Reaction that occurs when two molecules are joined together with the removal of water

2

Hydrolysis reaction

Reaction that occurs when one molecules is split into two smaller molecules with the addition of water

3

Composition of a cell (4)

Water 70
Inorganic ions 1
Small Organic molecules 3
Macromolecules 26

4

Two types of monosaccharides

Aldehyde - Aldose
Ketone - Ketose

5

General formula of carbohydrates

Cx(H20)y

6

Glucose (5)

4 chiral centres
Forms enantiomers
Can be either D (right) or L (left) depending on where -OH group is placed on 5th carbon
D glucose gives a and b glucose.
a glucose when -OH pointing down on carbon 1

7

How is glucose suited to its function (4)

Soluble- easily transported around.
Small molecules – can diffuse across cell membranes.
Easily/quickly, respired/oxidised to produce ATP.
Can form maltose and glycogen.

8

Examples of Disacccharides (4)

Maltose (malt sugar) = α glucose + α glucose
Sucrose (milk sugar) = α glucose + fructose
Lactose (milk sugar) = α glucose + β galactose
Cellobiose = β glucose + β glucose

9

Oligosaccharides - BREAK DOWN THE NAME
- definition - 2 functions
(4)

Is a saccharide polymer containing a small number of monosaccharides
Monosaccharides and lipids - blood groups
Cell recognition
Cell binding

10

Amino acids (7)

Chiral carbon
D (right) or L (left) form (L form are only used and formed in cells). Some D in walls of bacteria
D amino acids are used in therapy
Except glycine (R group is a H)
Peptide bonds and condensation reaction
Precursors to hormones

11

AA Precursors to hormones

Tyrosine —> Adrenaline (triggers glycogen breakdown)
Histidine —> Histamine (vasodilator)

12

Nucleic acids (6)

Sugar, base and phosphate
Pyrimidines (single ringed) - T and C
Purines (double ringed) - A and G
2 - A and T. 3 - G and C.
Nucleic acids made in 5’ to 3’ end
Bases joined by hydrogen bonds

13

Lipids

Ester bonds/ esterification

14

Esterification

A condensation reaction where -OH group of a carboxylic acid and the -OH of an alcohol produce an Ester.

15

Define triglyceride (1)
Functions of triglycerides (5)

One glycerol and three fatty acids (members of carboxylic acids)
Energy store
Energy source
Insulation
Buoyancy
Protection

16

Phospholipids

2 fatty acids and a phosphate
Hydrophobic tail
Hydrophilic head

17

Cholesterol

Decreases fluidity of membrane
Increases flexibility of membrane
Reduces permeability for solubility molecules

18

Diseases caused by a single molecule (3)

Diabetes (insulin-dependent): Absence of protein hormone (insulin) leads to failure to regulate blood glucose.
Sickle cell disease: One amino acid change in a globin chain causes haemoglobin to aggregate into a polymer.
Cystic fibrosis: Absence of membrane protein that transports chloride leads to altered properties of secretions.