Lecture 2: Conjugate and non-conjugate driving forces Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Conjugate and non-conjugate driving forces Deck (11)
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1

What is flow?

Change is spatial distribution of something, e.g. matter, electrical charge, heat.

2

What is a driving force?

A thermodynamic flow in response to a thermodynamic force. The driving force is in response to the system's non-equilibrium state.

3

What are conjugate flows/driving forces?

When the flow and driving force are of a similar type. For example:
- flow of matter driven by concentration gradient
- flow of electrical charge driven by voltage (gradient in charge)
- flow of heat driven by temperature gradient

4

What are non-conjugate flows/driving forces?

When the flow and driving force are of a non-similar type. For example:
- electric current driven by a concentration gradient
- chemical reaction driven by change in concentration of matter

5

What is energy transduction?

When a thermodynamic force stimulates a non-conjugate flow.

6

What is energy coupling?

When thermodynamically unfavourable reactions are driven by thermodynamically favourably reactions.

7

How can two reactions can coupled?

Reactions can be coupled by:
- common intermediates (majority of coupled reactions)
- conformational changed transmitted through through proteins
- flow of ions across membranes

8

What is metabolism?

The study of energy flow in a biological system.
The overall process through which a living organism can acquire and utilize free energy.

9

What affects the measurements of delta G of ATP in the cell?

The binding of magnesium ions, which have a high affinity for ATP.

10

What happens in a phosphoryl transfer reactions?

A phosphoryl group (O-PO3-2) is transferred to an alcohol, creating another alcohol.
R1-O-PO3-2 + R2-OH --> R1-OH + R2-O-PO3-2

11

Why are phosphoryl transfer reactions important?

The most important involve ATP and are important in providing energy for biosynthesis and active transport.