Lecture 2: Counter Intuitive Behaviour Flashcards Preview

APS209 Animal Behaviour > Lecture 2: Counter Intuitive Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2: Counter Intuitive Behaviour Deck (19):

why do humans eat so many sweets and drink so many soft drinks?

Especially the we know its rots teeth, make you obese, leads to diabetes and is COSTLY


Infanticide in Hanuman langurs group / individual selection? And what occurs?

--live in social groups, 1 M and group of F.
-- when a M is displaced they new males kills the old ones young (risk being attacked by females)
-SO infanticide free F become pregnant sooner. The male becomes father sooner and has more offspring before being displaced himself


group selection is the idea that

certain characteristics of individuals are adaptive not at the individual level but at the group level
-individual will be doing something good for the group but bad for themselves
-e.g. reproducing less to avoid overexploiting resources


what is the problem with group selection

individual selection will usually be stronger. Groups with the characteristics necessary for group selection are rare


when are "non-restraining" (selfish) type advantageous? Competition WITHIN groups for space or resources/competition BETWEEN groups for space or resources

Competition WITHIN groups for space --> individuals do better


when are "restraining" altruistic type advantageous? Competition WITHIN groups for space or resources/competition BETWEEN groups for space or resources

competition BETWEEN groups for space or resources --> groups do better


Alcock discusses infanticide in other species:

including lions, giants waterbeds and jacanas


infanticide in meerkats

-meerkats live in social groups, with a dominant female & subordinates
-pregnant females will kill the pups of other females, so their young do not have to compete for resources --> direct benefit


self sacrifice in Worker Honey bees

-self sacrifice --> casting off part of body
-barbed sting, easy to go in, hard to come out
-alarm pheromone guides other worker bees to the intruder -> releases highly defensive behaviour
-individual gains benefits as pass on genes by helping fam survive, by leaving sting in the victim works for longer


worker honey bees sting contains

muscles, nerve ganglion a venom sac and an alarm pheromone gland


alarm pheromone main chemical

-very volatile and smell of bananas, isoamy acetate


Sex change in Anthias fish

-Female --> Male
- gains fitness as a large male has greater reproductive potential as female eggs are limited


Garden spider: waiting for females to mature

-M smaller than F
-M waits near nest and then waits for female to mature, then plucks nest (differently to how prey would) to gain F attention


Crabs spider:

Grabs F legs waits till F stop wriggling ties her in silk, copulates and then leaves her to untangle herself


nuptial gift

food gift --> persuade female


black widow to types

black widow and redneck spider


redback spider: differences in F & M

-Female much larger
-F live longer
-M matures at a younger age
-Many males per female
-multiple mating by females occurs


redback copulation

ends in cannibalism of male
-male actually gives himself to feel, almost as a nuptial gift


Why do redbacks M give themselves to the F to be cannibalised??

Female is less likely to mate again if she has cannibalised the first male