Lecture 2- fundamentals of distribution Flashcards Preview

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What are distribution and range?

General terms that are used to decribe where a group of organisms occurs, and can be described at many spacial scales


What is an example of a large spacial scale?

geographic-total global area where the species occurs


What is an example of an intermediate spatial scale?

Regional- Where a species occurs within a given boundary (ie. deer in BC)


What is an example of a small spatial scale?

Niche- Specific ways that an organism fits into an ecosystem


What are temporal scales?

Varieties of time scales.


What is a Diel scale?

Species' range changes over a 24 hour period


What is seasonal?

Variations in range throughout a year


What is annual?

variations in range over multiple years


What is species adaption?

When a species increases it tolerance to some environmental factor. It is a result of natural selection


What are behavioral adaptions?

adaptions to attract a mate, adaptions in diet, adaptions in shelter


What are morphological adaptions?

Adaptions related to an organisms physical structure. ex. elephants have wrinkled skin to increase heat loss with more surface area


What are physiological adaptions?

adaptions relating to an organisms inner workings. heat conservasion, energ and nutrient conservation, adaptions for changing sex


What does natural selection entail?

1. Pops ususally produce a surplus of offspring (Survival)
2. traits vary among individuals
3. many traits are inherited from parents
4. traits better suited for reproduction and survival will maximize fitness and persist over time


What does evolution entail?

Change over time in a popultions inherited characteristics


What is a technique for identifying adaptions in plant populations?

Reciprocal transplant experiments


How are distributions esablished?

distributions are determined by where in the world a species has evolved


What can limit a species distribution

Characteristics of a landscape. many environmental fctors determine whether a species can successfully establish itself


What is dispersal ability?

relative ability of a species to move away from their place of origin into a new habitat or area in which they survive and reproduce.


What is habitat selection (preference)?

Active behavior of animals in selecting the most valuable sites (feed, breed, raise young) even though it can survive in other areas


What is insufficient time?

Given more time, a species may expand its range through dispersal (which is considered natural range expansion when humans do not aid dispersal


What are some Abiotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?

Climate, rainfall, elemental concentrations, pH, salinity, soils


What are some biotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?

Predators, parasites, disease, competitors, or species that provide some type of benefit


Why are controls important in experiments?

to compare experimental conditions with the natural process and variations.