Lecture 2 - Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Innate Immunity Deck (68):
1

Function of lysozyme

Degrade peptidoglycan

2

Which type of bacteria is lysozyme particularly effective against?

Gram +

3

Which type of bacteria is lysozyme less effective against?

Gram -

4

Auxillary cells
1)
2)
3)

1) Megakaryocyte
2) Basophil
3) Mast cell

5

Phagocytic cells
1)
2)
3)

1) Monocyte/Macrophage
2) Neutrophil
3) Dendritic cell

6

Difference between macrophages and monocytes

Monocytes citculate in the blood
Macrophages reside in tissues

7

What do RIG-like helicases detect?

dsRNA

8

What do NOD-like receptors detect?

Peptidoglycan

9

What does TLR4 detect?

Lipopolysaccharide

10

What detects lipopolysaccharide?

TLR4

11

What detects peptidoglycan?

NOD-like receptor

12

What detects surface proteins?
1)
2)

1) TLR1/TLR2 complex
2) TLR2/TLR6 complex

13

What detects dsRNA?

TLR-3, RIG-like helicase

14

What does TLR-3 detect?

dsRNA

15

What do TLR-7 and TLR-8 detect?

ssRNA

16

What detects ssRNA?

TLR-7 and TLR-8

17

What detects CpG DNA?

TLR-9

18

What does TLR-9 detect?

CpG DNA

19

What does TLR-5 detect?

Flagellin

20

What detects flagellin?

TLR-5

21

What detects uropathogenic bacteria?

TLR-11

22

What does TLR-11 detect?

Uropathogenic bacteria

23

Where is TLR-5 expressed?

Basolateral surface of epithelial cells

24

Which toll-like receptors are expressed within an endosome?

TLR-3
TLR-7
TLR-9

25

What is NLRP?

Nod-like receptor family with N-terminal PYD domain

26

What makes up an inflammosome complex?

Nod-like receptor, PYHIN

27

What do inflammosomes do?

Activate pro-caspase1

28

Function of NLR domain in NLRP

Sensor domain

29

Function of NACHT domain in NLRP

Oligomerisation domain.
Binds to other proteins when activated

30

Function of PYD domain in NLRP

Signal transduction
Caspase recruitment

31

Function of ASC domain in NLRP

Adaptor protein
Recruits pro-caspase 1

32

What does activated caspase 1 do?

1) Converts pro-IL-1b to IL-1b
2) Activates IL-18

33

Function of IL-1b

Inflammatory mediator

34

Function of IL-18

With IL-12 promotes IFN-gamma production

35

Effect of NLRP4/NAIP activation

1) Pyroptosis
2) Eicosanoid production
3) Cytokine processing

36

What results in NLRP3 activation?
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Pore-forming toxins
2) Ionophoric compounds
3) High extracellular [Ca] or [ATP]
4) E. coli or V. cholerae

37

Results of NLRP3 activation

1) Pyroptosis
2) IL-1b, IL-18 release
3) Increase macrophage phagocytosis and digestion

38

What do inflammasomes sense?

Microbes in cytoplasm
DAMPS

39

Function of PYD or CARD domain in NLRP

Recruit ASC

40

Which part of the NLRP recruits ASC?

PYD or CARD domain

41

What does complement receptor 1 on a macrophage detect?

C3b

42

What does complement receptor 3 on a macrophage detect?

iC3b

43

What detects C3b on a macrophage?

Complement receptor 1

44

What detects iC3b on a macrophage?

Complement receptor 3

45

What does a C1q receptor on a macrophage detect?

Mannose binding lectin

46

What on a macrophage detects mannose binding lectin?

C1q

47

What does a mannan receptor on a macrophage detect?

Glycoconjugates

48

What on a macrophage detects glycoconjugates?

Mannan receptor

49

Three ways to activate complement cascade

1) Classical pathway
2) Lectin pathway
3) Alternative pathway

50

Classical pathway
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

1) Antibodies activate C1
2) C1 activates C2, C4
3) C3 convertase converts to C3
4) C3b. C3a discarded as an opsonin
5) Formation of C5 convertase C5b. C5a discarded
6) C6, C7, C8, C9
7) Formation of attack complex

51

Lectin pathway
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

1) Collectins attached to mannan activate C2 and C4
2) c3 convertase converts to C3
3) C3b. C3a discarded as an opsonin
4) C5 convertase. C5b formed. C5a discarded
5) C6, C7, C8, C9
6) Attack complex formed

52

Alternative pathway
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

1) Bacterial surface molecules bind C3b
2) C3 convertase
3) C3b. C3a discarded as opsonin
4) C5 convertase. C5a discarded
5) C6, C7, C8, C9
6) Attack complex formed

53

Function of C5a

1) Chemotaxis
2) Inflammation
3) B cell activation

54

Action of complement components
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

1) Bacterial lysis (C6, C7, C8, C9)
2) Inflammation (C5a)
3) Chemotaxis (C5a)
4) Opsonisation (C3a)
5) Second signal for B cell activation (detected with CR2) (iC3b)

55

How does C5a contribute to inflammation?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

1) Mast cells release histamine
2) Chemoattractant for neutrophils
3) Increase expression of adhesins on endothelial walls
4) Stimulates neutrophils to degranulate
5) fever

56

What does myeloperoxidase do?

Converts H2O2 to HOCl and water

57

What are chemokines?

Small, peptide cytokines
Attract cells

58

Effects of Il-4, IL-10, IL-13

reduce bacterial killing activity
Downregulate TNFalpha

59

Which cytokines induce neutrophil transmigration?
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) TNFa
2) IL-1
3) IL-8
4) IFNg

60

What do TNFa, IL-1, IL-8 and IFNg do together?

Induce neutrophil transmigration

61

What does PAF do?

Vasodilation

62

What do IL-8 and C5a do?

Chemotaxis

63

Which cytokines are responsible for chemotaxix?

IL-8, C5a

64

Which cytokines are responsible for inducing oxidative burst?
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) TNFa
2) IL-1
3) IL-8
4) PAF

65

What do TNFa, IL-1, IL-8 and PAF do together?

Induce oxidative burst

66

What does IL-6 do?

Induces liver to release acute phase proteins
--> Complement, transferrin

67

Which cytokine induces the liver to release acute phase proteins?

IL-6

68

What systemic effects do IL-1, IL-8 and TNFa have?

Chills, wasting, fever