Lecture 2 Material Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Material Deck (40):
1

Organelle

Part of the cell with a defined function

2

Nucleus

- Control center
- DNA storage and replication
RNA synthesis

3

Plasma Membrane

- Selectively permeable barrier
- Compartmentalization
- Signaling

4

Mitochondria

- Energy generation for cellular respiration

5

Smooth ER

- ER without ribosomes attached
- membrane synthesis ( creating lipids or fat )

6

Rough ER

- ER with ribosomes
- synthesis and packaging of protein for secretion and insertion into membrane
- Protein transport and storage

7

Golgi Apparatus

- Packaging and processing
- post transitional modification of proteins

8

Glycosylation

Controlled enzymatic modification of an organic molecule, especially a protein. Occurs in Golgi

9

Ribosomes

- Protein synthesis

10

Lysosomes

- Cellular digestion / degradation

11

Cytoskeleton

Supports cell structure and moves newly formed proteins around

12

Microtubules

Also used for internal support and shape

13

Nucleolus

- Site of ribosome synthesis

14

What is the central dogma of biology

DNA-> RNA-> protein

15

What are the two main steps of gene expression ?

Transcription and Translation

16

Which RNA molecule is responsible for DNA transcription ?

mRNA

17

Which enzyme is responsible for synthesizing RNA from DNA

RNA polymerase

18

Open Reading Frame ( ORF )

Sections of DNA that encode genes which bind to tRNA polymerase

19

Promoter

Region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Usually located near the start site of genes toward the 5' region

20

Start codon in mRNA

Always codes for methionine with the start codon AUG

21

True or False, not all of the cells in the body have the necessary genes to encode all of the proteins in the body

False, all the cells have the genes necessary to encode anything in the body . However only certain genes are expressed in each cell

22

In physiology , form follows ____

function

23

Enhancer

A short region of DNA bonded by activators to increase the likelihood of gene transcription

24

TATA box

DNA sequence that indicates where a genetic sequence can be read or decoded. It's a type of promoter sequence

25

Activator

A protein that increases gene transcription of a gene

26

Poly A tail

A long stretch of 10-200 adenine nucleotides at the end of mRNA molecules to protect it from degradation . A 5' cap is also added for protection

27

Spliceosome

Large complex that removes introns from transcribed pre- mRNA to form a primary transcript

28

Where is mRNA translated ?

Inside the ribosome

29

What is the function of tRNA ?

An RNA molecule that helps to decode mRNA by bringing specific amino acids based on the 3 letter codon

30

What kind of structure does tRNA have ?

A stem loop structure.

31

Protein secretion

proteins that will be exported from the cell . They usually have a similar sequence of hydrophobic amino acids in order to exit the cell

32

Proteins in the ER , they can either be _____ or ____.

anchored or passed across the membrane

33

Microtubule function

Supports and gives shape to the cell. Also help to transport proteins

34

Motor proteins

Used in ATP hydrolysis to help move cytoskeletal filaments in the cell

35

Exocytosis

Process which contents are released from the cell through a vesicle within the cell membrane

36

Endocytosis

Process of taking contents into the cell through a vesicle

37

Pinocytosis

A form of endocytosis where fluids are absorbed in bulk

38

Phagocytosis

A form of endocytosis that ingests large objects

39

Vesicle trafficking

The release and ingestion of biochemical molecules or contents

40

What can be used to help pinch off vesicles ?

motor proteins or microtubules