Flashcards in Lecture 2 Material Deck (40):
Part of the cell with a defined function
- Control center
- DNA storage and replication
- Selectively permeable barrier
- Energy generation for cellular respiration
- ER without ribosomes attached
- membrane synthesis ( creating lipids or fat )
- ER with ribosomes
- synthesis and packaging of protein for secretion and insertion into membrane
- Protein transport and storage
- Packaging and processing
- post transitional modification of proteins
Controlled enzymatic modification of an organic molecule, especially a protein. Occurs in Golgi
- Protein synthesis
- Cellular digestion / degradation
Supports cell structure and moves newly formed proteins around
Also used for internal support and shape
- Site of ribosome synthesis
What is the central dogma of biology
DNA-> RNA-> protein
What are the two main steps of gene expression ?
Transcription and Translation
Which RNA molecule is responsible for DNA transcription ?
Which enzyme is responsible for synthesizing RNA from DNA
Open Reading Frame ( ORF )
Sections of DNA that encode genes which bind to tRNA polymerase
Region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Usually located near the start site of genes toward the 5' region
Start codon in mRNA
Always codes for methionine with the start codon AUG
True or False, not all of the cells in the body have the necessary genes to encode all of the proteins in the body
False, all the cells have the genes necessary to encode anything in the body . However only certain genes are expressed in each cell
In physiology , form follows ____
A short region of DNA bonded by activators to increase the likelihood of gene transcription
DNA sequence that indicates where a genetic sequence can be read or decoded. It's a type of promoter sequence
A protein that increases gene transcription of a gene
Poly A tail
A long stretch of 10-200 adenine nucleotides at the end of mRNA molecules to protect it from degradation . A 5' cap is also added for protection
Large complex that removes introns from transcribed pre- mRNA to form a primary transcript
Where is mRNA translated ?
Inside the ribosome
What is the function of tRNA ?
An RNA molecule that helps to decode mRNA by bringing specific amino acids based on the 3 letter codon
What kind of structure does tRNA have ?
A stem loop structure.
proteins that will be exported from the cell . They usually have a similar sequence of hydrophobic amino acids in order to exit the cell
Proteins in the ER , they can either be _____ or ____.
anchored or passed across the membrane
Supports and gives shape to the cell. Also help to transport proteins
Used in ATP hydrolysis to help move cytoskeletal filaments in the cell
Process which contents are released from the cell through a vesicle within the cell membrane
Process of taking contents into the cell through a vesicle
A form of endocytosis where fluids are absorbed in bulk
A form of endocytosis that ingests large objects
The release and ingestion of biochemical molecules or contents