Flashcards in lecture 2 part1 Floral Biology and Pollination Deck (41)
The agencies of pollination fall into two groups:
What does Abiotic agencies mean?
non biological effects such as wind, water, rain.
What does Biotic agencies mean?
Biological effects such as Insects, birds, monkeys, small mammals (Bats, rats) and small reptiles (geckos), ants, water skaters.
plants which use biotic pollinators the plants and animals have coadapted and these various adaptations are called?
Define oligophilic plants
meaning they have very few species of visitors (Often only one).
What plants are oligophilic common in?
This tends to be most common in flowers with relatively specialised shapes (flags, trumpets, tubes), rather than “unsophisticated” flower with cup, bell or brush shapes which often have many different pollinating species and termed polyphilic
Remember as many of the major classes of pollination syndromes
Animal pollinated - Zoophily
Beetles - cantarophily
Bees - melittophily
Butterflies - psycophily
Moths - phalaenophily
Birds - Ornithophily
Bats - chireptonophily
Wind - Anemophily
Water - Hydrophily
What kind of partner are plants during pollination during transaction?
There is sometimes exceptions to the passive partner rules. What are these exceptions?
These exceptions are not entirely confined to animal-pollinated species. There are also explosive dis-charges of pollen into the air by the anemophilous species Ricinus communis and Parietaria diffusa.
What is probably the most ancient type of pollination?
Pollination by wind
What plants flourished in the Carboniferous and Mezoic areas?
chiefly vascular gymnosperms.
How do most gymnosperms pollinate?
What is the general appearance for wind pollinated plants?
generally small and inconspicuous, and possess none of the attractive attributes of entomophilous species, but are often only composed of the essential organs only.
Wind pollinated species include?
Grasses and sedges, conifers and many temperate broadleaf trees species such as walnuts, oaks etc.
What is the general appearance of a anemophilous follower?
The flower of anemophilous species are frequently small, drab and dull in colour because they don’t need to attract animal pollinators. They are arranged in catkins which are most often unisexual. The male catkins are often pendulous and their axes are flexible so they they can be easily shaken or swayed by the wind.
The pollen of the anemophilous is often?
small and smooth-coated
Anemophilous species produce far greater amounts of pollen than?
What did Pohl estimate in relation between Mercurialis annua and Romex acetosa
Pohl estimated that a single plant of Mercurialis annua and Rumex acetosa produce respectively 1,352,000,000 and 393,000,000 pollen grains!!! (Needed because pollination is down to chance).
What do Anemophilous flowers no possess?
Where are the few ovules in the Anemophilous flowers located?
few ovules in the ovary, two in juglands and Quercus, and one in Urtica, Parietaria, Ulmus, Betula and Myrica and the grasses
What do wind pollinated tree species produce to increase the chances of successful pollination?
Often wind pollinated tree species in temperate climates such as hazel (Corylus avellana) produce their tiny flowers early in the year before they produce leaves, and as a result the wind is able to gather the pollen without hindrance and the grains don’t get trapped in the foliage so increasing the chances of successful pollination
What happens when Angiosperms return to the water?
Angiosperms which have “returned to the water” show differing degrees of adaptation to their environment. The conservation of the flower, which makes it such a valuable organ in taxonomy, is now exhibited in an entirely different way.
Eelgrass is an example of what angiosperm?
Eelgrass is an example of an angiosperm which bears totally submerged flowers in tropical oceans, the flowers of which use hydrophilous pollination.
What do flowers of hydrophilous lack?
Flowers of hydrophilous species have no colour nectaries or scent since these are not required
What does the floral envelope consist of?
Their floral envelope is small, often only consisting of a single whorl of sepals, in some cases even this is missing and the flower exists as a single naked stamen or ovary as in the submerged Star Worts, the Callitriches
True hydrophily where the pollen is water-born only occurs in?
totally submerged aquatic species.
Give examples of totally submerged aquatic species
The most studied examples are the marine perennials, the grass wracks, Zostera, Phyllospadix and Halophila
it is only these species (marine perennials, the grass wracks, Zostera, Phyllospadix and Halophila) that?
pollen itself is modified to suit the environment.
Zostera marina has separate inflorescences of male and female flowers enclosed in the base of a grass-like leaf.
The male flower is a?
single sessile anther.
Anther wall and the land plants both don't have?