Lecture 3 An introduction to the plant kingdom Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3 An introduction to the plant kingdom Deck (33)
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1

List the 5 principal groups recognized by biologists

•Monerans (bacteria)

•Protists

•Fung

•Plants

•Animals

2

Roughly how many plant species are there?

Hundreds/thousands of plant species

3

What are the plant species divided into?

Its main divisions are ordered into hierarchies of lower groupings (taxa)

4

How are the plant species divided into taxa

–reflect the biological relatedness of their members

–primarily assessed on the basis of shared characteristics that have been inherited from a common ancestor

5

What other factors are used to classify plants?

•According to the communities in which they naturally occur–Climate, geology & soil

•Global plant communities–Biomes, e.g. taiga, tundra, savannah

•Phytosociological communities–UK - National Vegetation Classification (NVC)

•Horticultural communities –Habitat, biome or botanical grouping – alpines, aquatics, climbers

6

What are the different ranks in plant classification hierarchy?

Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

7

What are the features used in differentiating the major groups of plants containing chlorophyll?

Level of cellular organisation

•Photosynthetic pigments

•Other characters: cell wall structure, food storage compounds & types of flagella

8

What are the levels of cellular organisation for Prokaryotic?

No membrane-bound organelles

Division Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteria

9

What are the levels of cellular organisation for Eukaryotic?

Membrane-bound nuclei, chloroplasts & mitochondria

ALL other divisions

10

What is included in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic filamentous algae?

Nostocis a bluegreen alga (Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteria)

•Cells show little internal differentiation, even under the electron microscope

•Protoplast is differentiated into nucleus & cytoplasm;

•Large central cell sap vacuole.

•Spirogyrais a green alga (Chlorophyta); the cell includes a large spiral -shaped chloroplast

•The nucleus is suspended in the middle of the cell on strands of cytoplasm

11

What are the 3 classes of pigments

Chlorophylls

Carotenoids

Biliproteins/Phycobilins

12

What are the types and colour of Chlorophylls?

A, b, c, d

Green

13

What are the types and colours of Carotenoids?

Carotenes Orange
Xanthophylls Yellow

14

What are the types and colours of Biliproteins/phycobilins?

Phycoerythrin Red

Phycocyanin Blue

15

What are the featured used in differentiating the major groups?

Cellulose cell walls are commonest,

•also naked-celled plants

•& plants with walls constructed of silica

•Many groups store glucose polymers quite distinct from starch

•Motile cells can have whiplash flagella, flimmerflagella, or combinations of the two

16

What are the different Divisions of plants containing chlorophyll?

CYANOPHYTA

•PYRROPHYTA

•BACILLARIOPHYTA

PHAEOPHYTA

•RHODOPHYTA

•CHLOROPHYTA

17

What are the features of Chlorophyta

Eukaryotic cell structure

•Unicells, simple & complex filaments, simple thalli

•Cellulose cell walls

•Motile cells with 2 or more whiplash flagella

•Chloroplasts with chlorophyll a + b

•Chlorophyll dominant, chloroplasts green

•Mainly freshwater, some terrestrial

18

What are the differences between Bryophyta and Tracheophyta in terms of structure?

BRYOPHYTA:
Mosses, liverworts & hornworts

•No xylem or phloem

•Vegetative plant haploid

TRACHEOPHYTA
•Vascular plants

•Xylem & phloem present

•Vegetative plant diploid

19

Give examples of Bryophyta

•Mosses (Musci)

•Liverworts (Hepaticae)

20

Outline the main factors of Byrophyta

Lack vascular tissue

Have no woody parts (2ndry thickening)–Don’t grow to a great size

•Need water to complete their life cycle–typically found in moist habitats

21

Outline the main features of Hepaticae liverworts

•Typically flat membranous plants with lobed margins–Plant body is a thallus (thalloid)

•There are some leafy spp.

22

What are the 4 sub-Divisions of Tracheophyta?

Psilopsida

Lycopsida

Sphenopsida

Pteropsida

23

What are the Classes and sub-classes of Pteropsida?

Class: Filicinae

Class: Gymnospermae

Class: Angiospermae

Sub-class: Dicotyledonae (Dicots)

Sub-class: Monocotyledonae (Monocots)

24

What parts of the Tracheophyta division reproduce by spores?

Psilopsida

LycopsidaSub-

Sphenopsida

Pteropsida

Filicinae

25

What parts of the Tracheophyta division reproduce by seeds?

Gymnospermae

Angiospermae

26

What type of plants are Psilopsida?

Stem plants

27

Outline the main features of Psiopsida

Whisk ferns

•Comprise 2 genera–very few species

•Least complex of all terrestrial vascular plants – no leaves or roots

28

Outline the main features of Lycopsida - Club mosses

Club-shaped spore-bearing structures

•Inconspicuous vascular plants

•Have small simple leaves

•Around 1000 living species

29

Outline the main features of Sphenopsida- Horsetails

Dominated the world 350 million years ago

•Today only 40 species survive

•All in genus Equisetum

30

Outline the main features of Filicales- ferns

Vascular plants that reproduce by spores

•Around 12,000 spp. worldwide

•Largest are tropical tree ferns <30m