Flashcards in Lecture 3 An introduction to the plant kingdom Deck (33)
List the 5 principal groups recognized by biologists
Roughly how many plant species are there?
Hundreds/thousands of plant species
What are the plant species divided into?
Its main divisions are ordered into hierarchies of lower groupings (taxa)
How are the plant species divided into taxa
–reflect the biological relatedness of their members
–primarily assessed on the basis of shared characteristics that have been inherited from a common ancestor
What other factors are used to classify plants?
•According to the communities in which they naturally occur–Climate, geology & soil
•Global plant communities–Biomes, e.g. taiga, tundra, savannah
•Phytosociological communities–UK - National Vegetation Classification (NVC)
•Horticultural communities –Habitat, biome or botanical grouping – alpines, aquatics, climbers
What are the different ranks in plant classification hierarchy?
What are the features used in differentiating the major groups of plants containing chlorophyll?
Level of cellular organisation
•Other characters: cell wall structure, food storage compounds & types of flagella
What are the levels of cellular organisation for Prokaryotic?
No membrane-bound organelles
Division Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteria
What are the levels of cellular organisation for Eukaryotic?
Membrane-bound nuclei, chloroplasts & mitochondria
ALL other divisions
What is included in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic filamentous algae?
Nostocis a bluegreen alga (Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteria)
•Cells show little internal differentiation, even under the electron microscope
•Protoplast is differentiated into nucleus & cytoplasm;
•Large central cell sap vacuole.
•Spirogyrais a green alga (Chlorophyta); the cell includes a large spiral -shaped chloroplast
•The nucleus is suspended in the middle of the cell on strands of cytoplasm
What are the 3 classes of pigments
What are the types and colour of Chlorophylls?
A, b, c, d
What are the types and colours of Carotenoids?
What are the types and colours of Biliproteins/phycobilins?
What are the featured used in differentiating the major groups?
Cellulose cell walls are commonest,
•also naked-celled plants
•& plants with walls constructed of silica
•Many groups store glucose polymers quite distinct from starch
•Motile cells can have whiplash flagella, flimmerflagella, or combinations of the two
What are the different Divisions of plants containing chlorophyll?
What are the features of Chlorophyta
Eukaryotic cell structure
•Unicells, simple & complex filaments, simple thalli
•Cellulose cell walls
•Motile cells with 2 or more whiplash flagella
•Chloroplasts with chlorophyll a + b
•Chlorophyll dominant, chloroplasts green
•Mainly freshwater, some terrestrial
What are the differences between Bryophyta and Tracheophyta in terms of structure?
Mosses, liverworts & hornworts
•No xylem or phloem
•Vegetative plant haploid
•Xylem & phloem present
•Vegetative plant diploid
Give examples of Bryophyta
Outline the main factors of Byrophyta
Lack vascular tissue
Have no woody parts (2ndry thickening)–Don’t grow to a great size
•Need water to complete their life cycle–typically found in moist habitats
Outline the main features of Hepaticae liverworts
•Typically flat membranous plants with lobed margins–Plant body is a thallus (thalloid)
•There are some leafy spp.
What are the 4 sub-Divisions of Tracheophyta?
What are the Classes and sub-classes of Pteropsida?
Sub-class: Dicotyledonae (Dicots)
Sub-class: Monocotyledonae (Monocots)
What parts of the Tracheophyta division reproduce by spores?
What parts of the Tracheophyta division reproduce by seeds?
What type of plants are Psilopsida?
Outline the main features of Psiopsida
•Comprise 2 genera–very few species
•Least complex of all terrestrial vascular plants – no leaves or roots
Outline the main features of Lycopsida - Club mosses
Club-shaped spore-bearing structures
•Inconspicuous vascular plants
•Have small simple leaves
•Around 1000 living species
Outline the main features of Sphenopsida- Horsetails
Dominated the world 350 million years ago
•Today only 40 species survive
•All in genus Equisetum