Lecture 22: Human Genitalia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22: Human Genitalia Deck (44)
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How do you Ultrasound a prostate?

Need to have a full bladder
- Prostate is directly inferior to bladder --> therefore need to point US directly down


Lymphatic Drainage of male Reproductive system

Testes: para-arotic nodes at root of testicular artery L2 (abdominal > not iliac)
Vas Deferens: External Iliac nodes
Spermatic Vesicles: External and Internal Iliac nodes
Prostate: Internal Iliac nodes
Body of Penis/Corpus Cavernosa: Internal Iliac nodes
Glans Penis: Deep Inguinal and Iliac nodes (as is superficial)
Skin of Penis + Wall of Scrotum: Superficial inguinal
- tracts with veins (recess)


Components of the Uterus

Vagina --> Fornix --> Cervix --> Body (endo + meso) of Uterus --> Fundus --> Isthmus --> Ampulla --> Infundibulum --> Fimbrae --> Ovaries
- ovaries arent connected to the uterine tube --> connected via Broad ligament part of uterine perotineum which sweeps overtop of the utersus
- fimbrae create current to encourage egg into uterine tube --> ectopic pregnancy
- vagina: muscular tube



Recess created where vagina and cervix meet
- can access abdominal cavity


Creations due to Peritoneum of Uterus

1. Pouches (2x)
2. Broad Ligament (sweeps ontop, and holds ovaries externally onto uterus)
3. Uterine Angulation:
a) Bladder is inferior Supporting Uterus --> keeping it angulated and elevated --> Anteflexion --> b) Cervix --> inferior portion of uterus in direction with vagina --> Anteversion


Components of Broad Ligament of Uterus

- broad ligament runs through inguinal canal
- pulls uterus forward --> ontop of bladder
1. MesoVARIUM (section of broad ligament over ovary) --> a) Suspensory ligament (b/w pelvis + ovary) b) Ovarian ligament (b/w ovary + ligament)
2. MesoSALPHINX (section of broad ligament over uterine tube)
3. Round Ligament
4. MesoMETRIUM (over body) --> Double layer folded over itself


Sagital section of Broad ligament diagram



Functions of Uterine Ligaments

Ligaments attached to Uterus:
1. Broad Ligaments: carries vessels, nerves + lymphatics (SI support)
2. Round ligament: Creates pot. Lymphatic pathway (superficial inguinal nodes). Anteversion to inguinal nodes
Ligaments attached to Cervix:
3. Sacrocervical --> AP support
4. Transverse cervical --> ML support
5. Pubocervical --> AP support


What is the uterus supported by

1. Bladder
2. Ligaments


Overview of ovaries

1. Ova production
2. Hormone production (Oestrogen and Progesterone) --> creates follicular cells
Arterial supply: Ovarian artery (abd. aorta L2)
Venous drainage: Ovarian venous (IVC on right + Left renal vein on Left)
Nerve: Ovarian Plexus


External Female genitalia

1. Clitoris (erectile tissue. female version of male penis) --> extremely/most sensitive (contains 8000 nerve endings > male penis less sensitive
2. Vestibule ( enclosed by Labia majora.) Contains:
a) opening of urethra
b) Greater Vestibular glands (produce mucus)
3. Urethral Orifice
4. Vaginal orifice


Female Repro Lymphatic drainage

Ovary + fallopian tube + fundus: Ovarian nodes at root of artery L2
Round ligament: Superficial inguinal nodes
Body of uterus/Broad ligament: External Iliac nodes
Cervix: Internal Iliac nodes (some sacral)
Vagina: 1. Internal Iliac nodes 2. Superficial Inguinal nodes (pathway created via round ligament)
Gonads: para-aortic L2


Bartholin's Glands

Greater Vestibular glands --> located in vaginal vestibule --> secrete mucus
- located posterior + Lateral to vagina
- Females version of Bulbourethral glands but in SUPERFICIAL pouch


Clinical relevance of Bartholin's Glands

Bartolin's Cyst
a) Bartholin glands --> blockage --> inflammation --> CYST
b) Cyst --+ (not STD) bacteria --> infection --> ABCESS
Treatment depends on severity --> cysts and abcess usually requires drainage