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Flashcards in Lecture 23 Deck (31):
1

Which of the following is true of Ags?

A. Ags are our immune system defense against foreign bodies
B. Ags are substances produced by foreign bodies that stimulate our immune system
C. Foreign bodies themselves can act as Ags and stimulate our immune system
D. B and C
E. All of the above

D. B and C

2

T/F: In humoral immunity, Abs indentify and target circulating Ags and then destroy the cells producing them.

False, Abs indentify and target circulating Ags. Abs then target the cells producing these Ags for destruction by macrophages. Abs do not degrade the cells themselves

3

T/F: In cellular immunity T cells are directed against circulating Abs.

False, I n cellular immunity T cells are directed against CELLS infected with a pathogen that express an Ab on its surface.

4

Which mechanism is responsible for producing specific Abs for an Ag through primary responses, secondary responses, and memory cells?

A. Immunological memory
B. Clonal Selection
C. Helper T cells
D. Cellular immunity

B. Clonal Selection

5

Each immunoglobin molecule contain ___ polypeptide chains, which consist of ___ light chains and ___ heavy chains that combine to form a ___-shaped structure.

4 polypeptide chains
2 light chains
2 heavy chains
Y-shaped

6

What is responsible for Ab diversity by reshuffling the diverse Ab segment genes?

Somatic recombination

7

How is Ab diversity increased during somatic recombination?

A. Changing combos of heavy and light chains
B. Deletions of nucleotides at segment junctions
C. High mutation rates in Ig genes
D. A and C
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

8

________ depends on T cells. __________ depends on Ab producing B cells.

A. Cellular immunity; Humoral immunity
B. Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity
C. Both types of immunity depend on both T and B cells

A. Cellular immunity; Humoral immunity

9

T cell receptor composed of ______ polypeptide chains, each having a _______ region and a ________ region.

1. Two
2. Constant
3. Variable

10

What hold alpha and beta polypeptide chains of T cell receptors together?

A. Polypeptide bonds
B. Disulfide bonds
C. Covalent bonds
D. Hydrogen bonds

B. Disulfide bonds

11

What are the most important genes in deciding the fate of a transplanted tissue, cell or organ?

A. Ags
B. HOX genes
C. MHC
D. ABO blood type genes

C. MHC

12

On which chromosome in the MHC region found?

Chromosome 6

13

Major function of MHCs:

A. Bind to peptide fragments derived from pathogens and display them internally
B. Responsible for producing Abs
C. Opsonization of circulating microbes
D. Bind to peptide fragments derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by appropriate T cells

D. Bind to peptide fragments derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by appropriate T cells

14

What type of immunity is considered main response against transplanted tissue because the principal target of the immune response in MHC on the surface of donor cells?

A. Innate
B. Adaptive
C. Alloimmune
D. A and B
E. B and Can

E. B and C

15

T/F: The immune system sometimes has difficulty distinguishing appropriate target proteins

True

16

Which of the following is involved in the initiation of an autoimmune response?

A. Ag presented within MHC II on APCs
B. CD4+ T helper cells recognize MHC II
C. Co-stimulatory molecules are required
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

17

What contributes to 50% of inherited risk of Type I diabetes where insulin producing cells are damaged by autoimmunity?

A. HLA
B. MHC I
C. Ags
D. A and B
E. B and C

D. A and B

18

As severity of symptoms associated with T1DM increases over time, so does number of:

A. Auto antigens
B. HLA molecules
C. MHC molecules
D. All of the above

A. Auto antigens

19

80% of T1DM cases are:

A. Familial
B. Inherited
C. Nonfamilial
D. Both A and B

C. Nonfamilial

20

T/F: Variance of T1D between different countries is influenced by environmental effects.

True

21

What hypothesis proposes that there is an increased prevalence of hay fever, eczema, and asthma in small families with high standards of cleanliness?

Hygiene hypothesis

22

What is the most important risk factor for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?

A. Gain of function genes
B. Specific sequences of HLA genes
C. Homozygous recessive alleles
D. DNA repair gene mutations

B. Specific sequences of HLA genes

23

T/F: Shared immunological mechanisms in several immune-related disorders can help further our understanding of pathogens is of immune-related diseases.

True

24

How can studying the microbiome help develop a novel approach to the disease prevention/management in asthma and allergies

Inappropriate composition of microbiome (Microbial community) of airway and GI tract has seen to be consistently related to asthma and atopy.

Manipulating microbiota in these sights may be key to managing/preventing these diseases

25

What has a strong interrelationship with gut microbiota?

Immune system and diet

Diet - can include issues with malnutrition bc of socioeconomic status

26

What is one of the most severe immunodeficiencies that is characterized by a defect in T and B cell function and requires significant protection of the individual from the environment

A. Severe Chronic Immunodeficiency (SCID)
B. Allergy
C. Asthma
D. Lupus

A. Severe Chronic Immunodeficiency (SCID)

27

Which of the following is seen in physical exam of patients with primary immune disease?

A. Infections
B. Failure to thrive
C. Disregarded immune reactions
D. Family history
E. A, C, D
F. All of the above

F. All of the above

28

What can be seen to drastically improve survival rates in SCID patients?

A. Transfer of Abs
B. Immunoactivating drugs
C. Early detection/diagnosis
D. Nonfamilial form of SCID

C. Early detection/diagnosis

29

Which of the following are used in Gene diagnosis?

A. Deep sequencing
B. Whole exome sequence
C. TREC
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

30

Advantage of next generation sequencing?

Can diagnose many diseases with one test as opposed to needing many tests to diagnose many diseases

31

T/F: TREC screening is sufficient for screening for immune deficiencies.

False, We need better methods for things not found by TREC. Thus development of next generation sequencing