Lecture 26: Sexual function and Dysfunction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 26: Sexual function and Dysfunction Deck (42):

Sexual Response Cycle

- Masters and Johnson 1966 --> observation and recordings of sex --> low levels of volunteers --> High proportion of prostitutes used for studies
1. Excitement (Arousal phase
2. Plateau
3. Orgasm
4. Resolution
5. Refractory period
Overall: groundbreaking research. tested and added too over the years


Descriptions for the phases of Sexual Response Cycle

1. Excitement (arousal phase): caused by any reflexogenix or psychogenic stimulation
2. Plateau: arousal reversible --> inevitable orgasm
3. Orgasm
4. Resolution: Involuntary period of tension loss (slower in woman than men)
5. Refractory period
- Increased HR, Change in BP, sweating, degree of dilitation


Sexual response cycle table



Kaplan 1979

Kaplan: feminist --> all about X and the Lack there of
3 phase model
1. Desire
2. Arousal
3. Orgasm
- forms basis of DSM IV classification of female sexual Dysfunction
Note: Linear models arent reality for many woman


Why are linear models not reality for the majority of woman?

1. disconnection b/w desire and orgasm
2. assumption: vasocongestion measures arousal
3. assumption: Orgasm reflects satisfaction (synonymous)


Basson's mode

Tries to separate desire and arousal --> bigger contention/problem for female sexuality (more than male sexuality)
Allows for consideration: Marital relationship --> husband more eager to have sex than female --> lack of female desire --> but becomes secondarily aroused during act


Categories of Sexual Problem Impairments

1. Physiological impairment (sexual dysfunction)
2. Non-Physiological impairment (human relations/difficulties in, consequences of, ways in which people conduct themselves sexually
a) Psychological
i) IntERsychic (Within the 2x people of the relationship/communication)
ii) IntRAsychic (beliefs, meanings, conflicts, guilt, shame, information deficiet/distortion, past sexual trauma, depression, anxiety, aversions, phobias
b) Social
i) situational (environmental)
Note: most common when have newborns/young children


PLISSIT model in regards to primary care of sexual dysfunction

- Annon and Robinson 1978
- Model for Sexual counselling --> interventions for common sexual dysfunctions of 4x levels of intensity
P: ERMISSION to talk about sexual matters, fantasize, enjoy sexuality
LI: Limited Information (response to patient's discussion)
SS: Specific Suggestions (e.g. retroverted uterus --> have sex ontop)
IT: Intensive Therapy


What is the most common female sexual complaint

Lack of desire
Medication: Flibanserin (Girosa)


3x Main reasons for Female Sexual dysfunction

1. disorder of sexual Interest or Arousal
2. disorder of orgasm
3. disorder of genito-pelvic pain/penatration
- dysparenuria
- vaginismus


What are the requirements for a complain of sexual dysfunction by both males and females

1. atleast 6 months
2. atleast 75-100% of time
3. results in atleast significant distress


What are the potentail variations in sexual dysfunctions for both males and female?

1. Lifelong or acquire
2. Generalised vs situational
3. Severity: mild, moderate, severe


Associated features of sexual dysfunction for both males and females

1. partner
2. relationship
3. individual vulnerability factors/ psychiatric co-morbidity / stressors
4. cultural or religious
5. medical factors


Description of Associated features of sexual dysfunction for both males and females

1. partner: partner sexual problem, partner health status
2. relationship: poor communication, discrepancies in desire for sexual activity
3. individual body factors: poor body image, history of sexual or emotional abuse, Psychiatric comorbidity: depression or anxiety. Stressors: job loss, bereavement
4. Cultural or religious: inhibitions related to prohibitions against sexual activity or pleasure. attitudes towards sexuality
5. Medical: factors relevant to prognosis, course or treatment


Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction

1. Is there really a problem: If so Whose problem (which partner) and Check associate features of partner (past sexual abuse/domestic violence)
2. Education:
3. Counselling:
a) Patient Couple
b) Sensate focus (ban sex, RE-ESTABLISH INTIMACY by starting at foundation)
c) manage medical problem
- "menopause" --> sexual function issues:
i) consider hormone replacement therapy --> topic oestrogen --> adds robustness to vaginal mucosa --> increased lubrication and hence decreased pain during sex
ii) physiotherapy --> added strength to pelvic floor muscles


4x main reasons for Male Sexual Dysfunction

1. Hypoactive sexual disorder (decreased libido)
2. Erectile
3. Ejaculation: Delayed (retarted) or Premature (rapid)
Note: biased research as most researchers are men --> know more about male sexual dysfunction


Cuases of Hypoactive sexual disorder/Low libido in men

1. Psycholocial
a) fatigue
b) situational
c) depression --> treament drugs further worsen sexual dysfunction
2. Physical
a) hypothyroidism
b) hypogonadism
c) PADAM (Partial Androgen deficiency in Aging Males)
3. Other: Medicaiton (e.g. antidepressants)



Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males
--> extreme hypogonadism disproportionate to rate of male aging
Treatment: Testosterone supplementation


What are the nerve pathways to penile erections?

Visual, imaginative, auditory, emotional or olfactory sex stimuli to brain --> No release --> increase in cGMP in penile areas --> increased smooth muscle/erectile tissue relaxation --> increased blood flow into corpora cavernosum (arterial expansion)--> compression of veins distended lacunae and cavernous sinuses --> erection --> PDE-5 enzyme breaks down cGMP --> acoids thrombosis + decreases erection
Note: disruption on any level can cause problems
Pelvic level: Contains reflex arch (tactile response cremasteric reflex) --> allows men with spinal cord injuries still being able to get erect --> reflex arch at pelvic level is a tactile response in nerve pathway


What is a special loop hole in the Nerve pathway to penile erection?

Reflex arch at pelvic level (tactile response cremasteric reflex)
Clinically: means men with spina cord injuries are still able to get erect (tactile response nerve pathway)


What sort of instrument is the penis

Penis isnt a muscle
Hydrolic instrument


Components of Penis Flaccid --> Erect

1. Circumflex vein
2. Cavernous sinuses
3. tunic albuginea
4. Helicine arteries
5. Cavernous arteries


Erectile Difficulties requirements

Persisitent inability, for alteast 3 months, to obtain and maintain sufficient and satisfactory sexual performance
Note: DSM-5: 6 months


Relating features to erectile difficulties

1. Prevalance increases with age (paralleled to increased rate of organic illnesses with age)
2. Organic vs Psychogenic
- incident w. failure to become erect --> psychological reaction --> perpetuates erectile loss
3. Chronic illnesses (decreased libido/interest), surgery (interruption of fine vessels), trauma (spinal or pelvic)
4. Midifiable risk factors


Chronic Illnesses causing Erectile Dysfunction

1. Systemic (atheroscleorisis, dibatere, CVD, renal/heaptic failure)
2. Neurogenic (alzhiemers, multiple sclerosis)
3. Penille disorder (Peyrones) /Psychiatric (depression + performance anxiety) /Endocrine (hyper/hypothyoidism, hypogonadism, hyperprolativemia)
Note: Peyrones disease --> Trauma/clot/inflammation --> fibrosis to Tunica --> distortion of erect penis --> hard to achieve


Surgery and Trauma as causes of Erectile Dysfunction

1. Neurological (spinal cord)
2. Pelvic (injury, surgery, irradiation of pelvic region)
3. Urological (prostatectomy) --> disruption of fine nerves supplying penis --> risk of impotence with prostatic surgery


Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction

1. No impotence: 48%
2. Minimal: 17%
3. Moderate: 25%
4. Complete impotence: 10%
Note: changes would have occurred by now, as this study occurred in 1987-69
Additionally: biased results as involved relatively older test patients (40-70 years)
Overall: 52% of men experience some degree of erectile dysfunction


Associated of Prevalance of Erectile Dysfunction with age

Overall: Increased probability of ED with age
1. 40 years --> 39% risk of ED
2. 50 years --> 48% risk of ED
3. 60 years --> 57% risk of ED
4. 70 years --> 76% risk of ED


Modifiable risk factors which can decrease risk of Erectile dysfunction

1. Alcohol
2. cigarette
3. Drugs (antihypersensitives, anti depressants, hormones, tranquilizers, miscellaneous (NSAIDS, H2RA, cocaine, heroine)


Etiology behind Erectile Dysfunction

1. Organic (vasculogenis, neurological, hormonal or cavernosal abnormalities/lesions)
2. Psychogenic (central inhibition of erectile mechanism w/o physical insult) --> typically secondary to original ED occurrence --> continued stress of reoccurrence --> Physchogenic problems


What is the common occurance order b/w Organic or Psychogenic problems in relation to Erectile Dysfunction

Psychogenic problems are often Secondary to the actual ED effect --> due to continued worrying of reoccurrence --> psychogenic problems


Sexual Performance Anxiety Circle

1. Loss of confidence --> 2. Lack of interest --> 3. Treatment Feedback Loop --> 4. Performance Anxiety
- mindfulness based approaches as a component of treatment
-pro erectile drugs can be like training wheels --> brief dose to get confidence back


PDE5 inhibitors

1. Sildenafil (viagra) : generics now cheaper
2. Tadalafil (cialis): not yet off patent
- longer duration of action
- option of low dose (5mg) daily --> maintains oxygenation --> improves endothelial smooth muscle health
3. Vardenafil (levitra): shorter duration of action --> dont feel terrible for long


Male Erectile Dysfunction Treatment approaches

1. PDE5 inhibitors
2. Alprosatdil (Caverject) (inject into cavernosa)
3. Bimix (papaverine and phentolamine) --> Note: Papaverine often creates problems --> need to reverse with another drug
4. Trimix (prostaglandin PGE1, papaverine and phentolamine)
5. ED shock wave therapy
6. Vacuum device
7. Surgery


Rapid Premature Ejaculation

ejaculation occurs before the individual wants to
Traditional theories:
1. Furtive early masturbation
2. the "too exciting vagina"
3. Genital hypersensitivity
4. Lack of alarm signal


Traditional therapeutic responses to premature ejaculation

1. Sensate focus with "squeeze" technique --> blunt blow to glans penis
2. "Stop-Start" technique
3. Local anaesthetic spray (benzocaine)


Neurobiological approach to Ejaculatory disorders

SSRI (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- decreased serotonin neurotransmission --> hypofunction of 5HT2c receptor --> Familial aspects
- is premature ejaculation a natural selective advantage in nature?
- SSRI daily
or: Clomipramine daily/ 12 hours before sex
- Dapoxetine (Priligy): --> related to SSRIs --> really helpful with temporal ejaculation problem --> but is rapidly metabolised therefore dont help treat depression
30mg or 60mg -> smaller dose is in and out of body faster --> less concern with suicidality risk of SSRIs over time


Delayed Retarded Ejaculation

No consensus operational definition
Generalised or situational
Lifelong DE rel Uncommon (1.5/1000, 3-4%)
Classically attributed to psychological issues: fear, anxiety, hostility, and relationship difficulties
Contemporary: Waldinger's Ejaculation Distribution therapy (EDT) --> Bell curve normal distribution within men (natural variation, most normal, some premature some delayed)


Available options of Erectile Dysfunction treatment

1. Non-invasive
- elimination of modifiable risk factors
- couselling and/or psychological therapy
- medication
- vaccum constriction devices (decreased efficancy. neurological)
2. Invasive
- Transurethral drug application (hardly used anymore)
- intracavernous injection therapy
- prosthesis implantation
- venous/arterial surgery (Steel)


Route's and sites of ED Drug treatment

1. brain
a) apomorphine (dopamine agonist, sublingual delivery)
b) sidinaphil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor, oral delivery)
c) phenolalamine (aplha-adrenergic blocker, oral delivery)
2. Groin area
a) Prostaglandin (vasodilator. 3x delivery areas)
- injeciton (intracavernous)
- suppository (intraurethral)
- transcutaneous ointment --> neuromuscular junction's corpora cavernosa smooth muscle cells --> vasodilation


Which is more complex out of ED and ED

Ejaculatory dysfunction disorders are more complex


Psychological and Acquired ED

1. Hypofunction of 5-HT1A receptors
- and/or possibly hyperfunction of 5-HT2c
- treatment research: h-HT receptor agonists
2. Acquired DE
-disease states (neurological conditions) (diabetes mellitus)
- medication: SSRIs , Tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics and others