Lecture 28- Integration of metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 28- Integration of metabolism Deck (43):
1

5 central themes that serve as strategic guidelines for the organization of metabolism

ATP is the universal source of the chemical energy
Atp is created from oxidation of fuels
NADPH is the major electron donor in reductive Biosynthesis
Biomolecules are assembled from smaller building blocks
Biosynthetic and degradative pathways do not occur simultaneouslyby

2

6 recurring strategies of Metabolic Pathways

Allosteric Regulation
Covalent modification
Altering enzyme levels
Isoenzymes
Compartmentation
Metabolic specialization of the organs

3

What metabolic pathways occurs solely in the cytosol

Glycolysis
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
FA Synthesis
Glycogen metabolism

4

What metabolic pathways occurs solely in the mitochondria

TCA Cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation
FA oxidation
ketone synthesis and utilization

5

What metabolic pathways occurs in the cytosol and mitochondria

Gluconeogenesis
Ure Synthesis

6

Substrate for Glycolysis

glucose

7

Substrate(s) for TCA cycle

Pyruvate, acetyl CoA

8

Substrate(s) for Oxidative Phosphorylation

NADH, FADH2. O2

9

Substrate(s) for pentose phosphate Pathway

Glucose-6-phosphate

10

Substrate(s) for glycogen synthesis

glucose-1-phosphate

11

Substrate(s) for glycogen degradation

glycogen

12

Substrate(s) for FA degradation

FAs

13

Substrate(s) for Gluconeogenesis

alanine, lactate, glycerol

14

Substrate(s) for urea synthesis

ammonia, aspartate, bicarbonate

15

product(s) of Glycolysis

pyruvate, 2NADH, 2ATP, 2 pyruvate

16

product(s) of TCA cycle

2ATP, 6NADH, 2 FADH2, 4CO2, H2O

17

product(s) of oxidative phosphorylation

ATP, H2O

18

product(s) of pentose phosphate pathway

pentoses, NADPH, CO2

19

product(s) of glycogen synthesis

glycogen

20

product(s) of glycogen degradation

Glucose-1-P, glucose

21

product(s) of fatty acid synthesis

fatty acids and triglycerides

22

product(s) of fatty acid degradation

acetyl-CoA, NADH, FADH2

23

product(s) of gluconeogenesis

glucose

24

product(s) of urea synthesis

urea

25

What are the four metabolites that serve as branch point for integration pf carbs, lipids, and aa metabolism?

Glucose-6-phosphate
Pyruvate
Glutamate Acetyl-CoA

26

What is the major fuel reserve for the liver in the fed state?

amino Acids

27

What is the major fuel reserve for the skeletal muscles in the fed state?

glucose. FAs

28

What is the major fuel reserve for the brain/RBC

glucose

29

What is the major fuel reserve for the small intestine in fed state

glutamine

30

What is the major fuel reserve for the kidney in the fed state

FAs, glucose, lactate

31

What is the major fuel reserve for the liver in the fasted state

FAs

32

What is the major fuel reserve for the skeletal muscle in the fasted state

FAs, ketones

33

What is the major fuel reserve for the brain/RBC in the fasted state

glucose/ketones

34

What is the major fuel reserve for the Small intestines in fasted state

glutamine and ketones

35

What is the major fuel reserve for the kidney in the fasted state?

FAs, ketones, glutamine

36

What metabolic process occurs in the fed and fasted state in the liver

glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

37

What does insulin do to adipose tissue?

stimulates GLUT 4 and lipoprotein lipase

38

What does glucagon, epinephrine, and ACTH do to adipose tissue?

stimulates hormone-sensitive lipase (inhibited by insulin)

39

What enzymes have increased activity with dephosphorylation?

PFK2
pyruvate dehydrogenase
pyruvate kinase
glycogen synthase
acetyl-CoA carboxylase

40

What enzymes are inhibited by insulin

G6Pase
PEPCK

41

What enzyme have increased activity with phosphorylation?

FBPase2
Glycogen Phosphorylase

42

What enzyme have decreased activity with phosphorylation?

pyruvate kinase
pyruvate DH
acetyl-coa carboxylase
glycogen synthase

43

What enzyme are synthesized in response to cAMP and glucocorticoids

Glu-6-pase
PEPCK
urea cycle enzyme