Flashcards in Lecture 28- Integration of metabolism Deck (43):
5 central themes that serve as strategic guidelines for the organization of metabolism
ATP is the universal source of the chemical energy
Atp is created from oxidation of fuels
NADPH is the major electron donor in reductive Biosynthesis
Biomolecules are assembled from smaller building blocks
Biosynthetic and degradative pathways do not occur simultaneouslyby
6 recurring strategies of Metabolic Pathways
Altering enzyme levels
Metabolic specialization of the organs
What metabolic pathways occurs solely in the cytosol
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
What metabolic pathways occurs solely in the mitochondria
ketone synthesis and utilization
What metabolic pathways occurs in the cytosol and mitochondria
Substrate for Glycolysis
Substrate(s) for TCA cycle
Pyruvate, acetyl CoA
Substrate(s) for Oxidative Phosphorylation
NADH, FADH2. O2
Substrate(s) for pentose phosphate Pathway
Substrate(s) for glycogen synthesis
Substrate(s) for glycogen degradation
Substrate(s) for FA degradation
Substrate(s) for Gluconeogenesis
alanine, lactate, glycerol
Substrate(s) for urea synthesis
ammonia, aspartate, bicarbonate
product(s) of Glycolysis
pyruvate, 2NADH, 2ATP, 2 pyruvate
product(s) of TCA cycle
2ATP, 6NADH, 2 FADH2, 4CO2, H2O
product(s) of oxidative phosphorylation
product(s) of pentose phosphate pathway
pentoses, NADPH, CO2
product(s) of glycogen synthesis
product(s) of glycogen degradation
product(s) of fatty acid synthesis
fatty acids and triglycerides
product(s) of fatty acid degradation
acetyl-CoA, NADH, FADH2
product(s) of gluconeogenesis
product(s) of urea synthesis
What are the four metabolites that serve as branch point for integration pf carbs, lipids, and aa metabolism?
What is the major fuel reserve for the liver in the fed state?
What is the major fuel reserve for the skeletal muscles in the fed state?
What is the major fuel reserve for the brain/RBC
What is the major fuel reserve for the small intestine in fed state
What is the major fuel reserve for the kidney in the fed state
FAs, glucose, lactate
What is the major fuel reserve for the liver in the fasted state
What is the major fuel reserve for the skeletal muscle in the fasted state
What is the major fuel reserve for the brain/RBC in the fasted state
What is the major fuel reserve for the Small intestines in fasted state
glutamine and ketones
What is the major fuel reserve for the kidney in the fasted state?
FAs, ketones, glutamine
What metabolic process occurs in the fed and fasted state in the liver
glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis
glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
What does insulin do to adipose tissue?
stimulates GLUT 4 and lipoprotein lipase
What does glucagon, epinephrine, and ACTH do to adipose tissue?
stimulates hormone-sensitive lipase (inhibited by insulin)
What enzymes have increased activity with dephosphorylation?
What enzymes are inhibited by insulin
What enzyme have increased activity with phosphorylation?
What enzyme have decreased activity with phosphorylation?