Lecture 3 Flashcards Preview

BMS 337 (Neuro) > Lecture 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (43):
1

2

 

 

What structures make up the brainstem?

 

 

Midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata

3

 

 

What are the embryonic origings of the three parts of the brainstem?

1. Mesencephalon - Midbrain

2. Metencephalon - Pons

3. Myelencephalon - Medulla oblongata

A image thumb
4

Label these structures of the brainstem.

Q image thumb

1. Brainstem

2. Midbrain

3. Pons

4. Medulla oblongata

A image thumb
5

 

 

What makes up the gray matter of the brainstem?

neuroglia cells (NOT Schwann cells!) 

Neuronal cell bodies

(ex: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia cells)

 

 

6

 

To what do the sensory and motor nuclei of the brainstem contribute?

 

 

 

Cranial nerves

The cranial motor and sensory nuclei are segmented, either sensory or motor, and have very specific functions - don't need to remember exact nuclei!

7

 

 

What is the difference between tract and nerve?

Tract - aggregate of axons within the central nervous system

 

Nerve - peripheral nervous system

8

 

 

What makes up the white matter of the brainstem?

 

 

 

Axons, Neuroglia

9

 

 

Where do the ascending and descending tracts of the brainstem originate?  What do they give rise to?

They orginate in the cerebral cortex, brainstem or spinal cord. 

 

They give rise to cranial nerves.

 

We don't need to memorize this figure but it's a good idea to check it out on Pg 173 of the lecture notes - it's way better than this one.

A image thumb
10

 

 

Are there neuronal cell bodies in white matter?

 

 

NO WAY!  This is the primary difference between white matter and gray matter.

 

You guys rock!  You're going to ace this exam!

11

 

When a section of the brainstem is prepared with Nissle stain...

1. What structures stain blue?

2. What structures stain pink?

3. What does it mean when there is a mixture of blue and pink in a large area?

1. White matter - blue

2. Gray matter - pink

3. Mixed white and gray matter

12

 

 

1. What is the reticular formation?  

2. What kind of matter makes up the reticular formation?

 

1. The large area in the middle of a cross-section of the brainstem that is blue with lots of pink dots - according to Uemera, looks like a kid "mixed two colors of paint."

2. Both white and gray matter - axons and neuronal cell bodies intermixed.

13

1. What type of cells make up the nuclei in this cross-section?

2. What types of cells make up the tracts in this cross-section?

Q image thumb

1. Nuclei (pink) - aggregates of neuronal cell bodies (we don't need to know the names of the nuclei... at least not yet!)

2. Tracts (blue) - myelinated axons 

A image thumb
14

 

 

How many of the cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?

 

 

10 cranial nerves arise from the brainstem

15

 

 

What part of the brain does the Olfactory nerve (CN I) arise from?

 

Hint - not in the brainstem

 

 

Telencephalon gives rise to olfactory n. (CN I)

16

 

 

From what part of the brain does the Optic nerve (CN II) arise?

 

Hint: Not the brainstem

 

 

The diencephalon gives rise to the optic n. (CN II)

17

 

 

Which cranial nerves arise from the midbrain?

 

 

1. Oculomotor (III)

2. Trochlear (IV)

18

 

 

Which cranial nerves arise from the pons?

 

 

Trigeminal (V)

19

 

 

Which cranial nerves arise from the medulla oblongata?

1. abducent (VI)

2. Facial (VII)

3. Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

4. Glossopharyngeal (IX)

5. Vagus (X)

6. Accessory (XI)

7. Hypoglossal (XII)

 

20

Name the cranial sensory nuclei

Q image thumb

1. caudate nucleus

2. thalamus

3. lateral geniculate nucleus

A image thumb
21

Name the cranial sensory nuclei 

(the 3 with the red arrows are on another card)

Q image thumb

1. Cochlear nuclei

2. vestibular nuclei

A image thumb
22

 

 

What does the lateral geniculate nucleus continue as?

 

 

The optic tract.

23

 

 

1. What kind of information does the cochlear nuclei receive?

2. Where is it receiving information from?

 

 

1. It receives sensory afferent auditory signals

2. From the cochlea in the inner ear

24

 

 

1. What kind of information does the vestibular nuclei receive?

2. Where is this information coming from?

 

1. It receives sensory information 

2. From the vestibular organi within the inner ear

25

 

 

Where do the two different motor fibers in the oculomotor nerve go?

 

 

1. To skeletal muscle - motor nucleus of the oculomotor nerve

26

 

 

How do you name the somatic motor nucleus?

 

 

Somatic motor nucleus is named after the CN that carries somatic motor fibers to SKELETAL MUSCLE

(ex: Motor nucleus of the oculomotor n.)

 

27

 

 

How do you name the parasympathetic motor nucleus?

 

 

Parasympatheic motor nucleus is named after the CN that carries parasympathetic fibers to SMOOTH MUSCLE and GLANDS

(ex: Parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomo

28

 

 

What is the exception to the cranial motor nucleus naming rules?

 

 

Nucleus ambiguus - we will learn more about what it is and its function later.

29

 

 

What is the function of the motor nucleus of the oculomotor nerve?

 

 

Innervates the extraocular mm.

(Medial rectus, ventral oblique, dorsal rectus, ventral rectus, levator palpebrae superioris 

30

 

 

What is the function of the parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomotor nerve?

 

 

To innervate the pupillary spincter and ciliary mm.

31

 

 

What is the functin of the ciliary muscle of the eyeball?

 

 

Accomodation of the lens to focus on objects moving nearer/farther.

32

 

 

What is the emerging site of the hypoglossal nerve (XII)?

 

Emerges from the ventral side of the medulla - the pyramid structure

A image thumb
33

 

 

What is the central nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve (XII)?

 

 

The motor nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve. (It is not on the surface of the brainstem)

A image thumb
34

 

 

What is the function of the motor nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve (XII)?

 

 

Innervates the skeletal muscle of the tongue.

35

I'm not sure that you have to ID this, but just know the the tracts come from the central nucleus to form the hypoglossal n.

 

 

Q image thumb

 

 

See pages 2 and 3 of the lecture notes if you want more info... I was kind of confused about what he wanted us to get from this

36

 

 

What is the target tisue of the hypoglossal n (XII)?

Skeletal muscle of the tongue

A image thumb
37

 

 

What is the function of the genioglossus m?

Q image thumb

 

To pull out and depress tongue

38

Label these structures of the tongue.

Q image thumb

1. Styloglossus M.

2. Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

3. Hyoglossus m.

4. Genioglossus m. 

A image thumb
39

 

 

In which direction does the tongue deviate with RIGHT unilateral lesions of the hypoglossal nerve?

Resting or panting - deviates to the LEFT

 

Licking - deviates to the RIGHT

40

 

If the hypoglossal nerve is unilaterally lesioned and the lesion is detected EARLY, to which side does the tongue deviate when the dog is resting/panting?

 

 

EARLY LESION: to the NORMAL side when resting/panting

41

If the hypoglossal nerve is unilaterally lesioned and the lesion is detected EARLY, to which side does the tongue deviate when the dog is licking?

 

EARLY lesion, tongue deviates to the LESIONED side when licking

42

If the hypoglossal nerve is unilaterally lesioned and the lesion is CHRONIC, to which side does the tongue deviate when the dog is resting/panting?  When it is licking?

CHRONIC unilateral lesion, tongue deviates to the LESIONED side whether the dog is resting/panting OR licking!

43

 

 

What the videos of the people and horses sticking their tongues out at you!  Try to figre out which side is lesioned.