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Flashcards in Lab 4 Deck (37):
1

2

1

2

3

4

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  1. Lateral ventricle
  2. Third ventricle
  3. Cerebral aqueduct
  4. Fourth ventricle

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3

green?

Light blue?

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green- lateral ventricle

Light blue- Third ventricle

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4

Yellow

Purple

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Yellow- Cerebral aqueduct

Purple- Fourth ventricle

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5

Green

blue

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Green- lateral ventricle

Blue- third ventricle

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6

look at horizontal section!

  1. Green
  2. Blue

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  1. Green- Lateral ventricle
  2. Blue- Third ventricle

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7

Look at horizontal section!

Yellow- 

Purple-

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Yellow- cerebral aqueduct

Purple- fourth ventricle

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8

1

2

3

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  1. Lateral ventricle
  2. Third ventricle
  3. Cerebral aqueduct

Fourth ventricle is under the cerebellum (cannot see)

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9

1

2

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  1. Caudate nucleus
  2. Thalamus

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10

3

4

5

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3- Rostral colliculi of the midbrain

4- Caudal colliculi of the midbrain

5- Third ventricle

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11

Where is the choroid plexus located?

  1. Lateral ventricles
  2. third ventricle
  3. fourth ventricles
     

12

What does the choroid plexus do?

Produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
 

13

  1. What is 1 (space)
  2. 2 (space)
  3. 3 (space)
  4. 4?

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  1. Lateral ventricle
  2. Intervertebral foramen
  3. Third ventricle
  4. Choroid plexus of lateral and third ventricles

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14

5?

6?

7?

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5- fourth ventricle

6- choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle

7- Medullary velum

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15

What is the medullary velum made up of?

  1. Pia mater
  2. ependymal cells

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16

What is the choroid plexus made up of?

  1. Connective tissue, very rich in vasculature
  2. choroid epithelium (a type of ependymal cell)

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17

what is this an image of?

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choroid plexus

18

1?

2?

3?

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  1. Capillary
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Chorid epithelium made up of ependymal cells

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19

  1. What type of junction do the ependymal cells have?
  2. What does this help with?
  3. What about the capillaries in the choroid plexus? (which junctions)

  1. Tight junctions
  2. Blood-CSF barrier

    • Prevents peptides, proteins & other large molecules  from filtrating into the CSF

  3. Capillaries have leaky junctions to allow molecules to leak out and form the CSF

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20

1?

2?

3?

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  1. Lateral recess
  2. Subarachnoid space
  3. dorsal sagittal sinus

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21

Once the CSF goes through the lateral recess where does it go?

  • subarachnoid space
  • then dorsal sagittal sinus which drain into the venous system

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22

What are 2 functions of the CSF

  1. CSF maintains a stable extracellular environment for neurons &    neuroglia
  2. CSF cushions the brain & spinal cord, protecting them from trauma

23

  1. What is 1 pointing to?
  2. What do you see in the second photo

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  1. Cerebral aqueduct

  2. cerebral aqueduct has been narrowed

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24

What happens when the cerebral aqueduct is narrowed or closed by some reason?

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25

  • What is 2 (space)?
  • What would cause this?
  • Would this specific picture happen in an adult dog or puppy?

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  1. Lateral ventricle
  2. Hydrocephalus- A condition in which CSF accumulates in the ventricle(s)

  3. would happen in an adult

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26

1

2

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1- fourth ventricle

2- choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle

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27

6

7

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6- Pyramid

7- Cerebellum

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28

3

4

5

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3- Choroid epithelium (made of ependymal cells)

4- Connective tissue

5- Medullary velum

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29

1

2

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  1. Fourth ventricle
  2. Pyramid

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30

 

Name the neuroglia that line the inner surface of the ventricles.
 

Ependymal cells

31

 

The connective tissue of the choroid plexus is derived from the
 

 

pia mater
 

32

 

What represents the blood-CSF barrier?
 

Choroid epithelium of choroid plexus

33

 

  1. What happens when the cerebral aqueduct is narrowed or closed by pathological lesions?
  2. Is there any difference in the outcome of such a condition between a pup and adult dog? 
     

  1. CSF builds up
  2. Pup- the skull will get larger
    • Adult- the brain will go under pressure atrophy

34

  1. In a case of severe cerebral edema, a condition known as hydrocephalus (i.e., abnormal accumulation of cerebral spinal fluid in the ventricles) may develop. Why is that?
  2. This condition may contribute to a further increase in intracranial pressure. Why?
     

  1. Swelling of the cerebellum causes a blockage of the drainage of CSF
  2. Fluid from the choroid plexus makes more CSF and the edema will not allow the fluid to escape 

35

 

In cases of severe cerebral edema, the brain stem is compressed by a herniated caudal cerebrum, but
the cerebellum is initially spared. Why?
 

The tentorium cerebelli (dura mater) is so strong that the cerebellum is often spared from increased pressure in the cerebrum

36

 

What causes a subdural hematoma (a circumscribed subdural effusion of blood)? (See page 52)
Why is it fatal if not treated promptly?
 

  • The vasculature is very closely associated with the brain and is easily damaged with a skull injury. 
  • Can be fatal if an increase in pressure puts pressure on the brainstem and brain.  Can cause meningitis. 
  • Also, the breach in blood-brain barrier can endanger the brain to mycotic, bacterial, or viral infections

37

May help to look at the MRI images for this also

  1. What is the mass at 1 doing?
  2. 2?
  3. What is the overall effects of these masses

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  1. Pushing up on the corpus callosum
  2. pushing down into the 4th ventricle blocking the CSF from leaving
  3. The 4th ventricle is enlarged and 3rd from the CSF not being able to leave out through the central canal and into the spinal cord

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