Lecture 3 - Evaluation of RBC Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3 - Evaluation of RBC Deck (59):
1

RBC come from the BM in __

long bones (humerus, femur, some wrist and flat bones)

2

4 Organs important for making RBC

1. BM
2. Kidney (Erythropoietin)
3. Liver (Iron)
4. Adrenal Glands, thyroid glands, pituitary, gonads (glucocoricoids, androgens, thyroxin) also help stimulate BM to make RBC precursors

3

__ maturation occurs in the BM

parametal (one big cell divides into 6)

4

RBC go to the __ to be recycled by macrophages

spleen

5

__ and __ go to the BM to stimulate erythropoiesis

erythropoietin and other hormones, iron

6

lifespan of a RBC

100days

7

__ contains 3 major pools - RBC precursors (BM), blood RBCs, and Splenic RBCs

erythron

8

After BM is stimulated by EPO, CFU-E differentiate into __ and proliferate via mitosis and mature until RBC are formed

rubriblasts

note: CFU-E = colongy forming unit erythroid cells

9

After release to the blood RBC circulate in the vascular system to

transport O2 to tissues

10

A resrve pool of RBC is sequestered in the __ of most mammals

spleen

11

Old (senescent) RBC are destroyed by macs in solid organs like

spleen and liver

12

How RBC bring CO2 back to lungs

carbonic anhydrase - increases CO2 carrying capacity by 17 fold

13

__ increases O2 carrying capacity of blood by 70x that of plasma

hemogloben

14

How is CO2 transported away from tissues

bicarbonate (70%), CA groups on Hb/RBC (25%), dissolved (5%)

15

3 functions of RBC

1. O2 to tissues
2. CO2 from tissues
3. buffering of H+

16

__ is the major protein buffer in blood for both respiratory and metabolic acids

hemoglobin

17

Hb buffers effects of Carbonic acid and allwos for the transport of

CO2

18

Morphology of RBC in most mammal species

biconcaved disc, prominent central pallor, little anisocytosis (size difference)

19

A few __ RBC can be normal

polychromatophil

20

Cat and horse RBCs

less central palar, smaller, rouleux (protein coating)

21

Camels RBC

Ovalecytes or olipticytes

22

what values can you get from a microcentrifuge and refractometer

PCV, TP

23

What 6 values can you get from an automated hematology analyzer

RBC count, Hg concentration, Hct, MCV, MCHC, RDW (Red cell distribution width)

24

what is in the buffy coat

platelets and WBCs

25

neonates have __ PCV and plasma proteins

lower

note: there is also species variation in PCV

26

equines and ruminants may have __ plasma normally due to diet

yellow (normal, not icterus)

27

PCV is normally roughly between

30-50% depending on species and age

28

plasma color in dogs and cats should be

clear/colorless

29

manual count in mammals use a __ (old school before analyzers), in non-mammals

hemacytometer

note: non-mammals use natt-herricks stain and just count WBC

30

most common way clinics count blood cells is

automated hematology analyzers (impedence coutner, laser flow cytometry, or a blend of both)

31

how do automated analyzers assess the QUANTITY of RBCs

1. RBC count (measured)
2. Hgb concentration (measured)
3. Hct % (CALCULATED)

32

what is the calculated version of the spun PCV given by a automated analyzer

Hematocrit % (HCT)

33

How do automated analyzers assess the QUALITY of RBCs

1. MCV (mean cell volume/RBC size, measured)
2. RDW (red cell distribution width/size variation of RBC, measured)
2. MCHC (mean cell hb concentration/Hb inside RBC, CALCULATED)

34

What quality of RBC is calculated? quantity calculated?

MCHC. HCT

35

__ is the average size of RBC

MCV - mean cell volume (quality)

36

__ is the size variation of RBC

RDW - red cell distribution width (quality)

37

__ is the Hb within a RBC

MCHC - mean cell hb concentration (calculated quality)

38

What 3 values from an automated machine always be consistently normal, increased or decreased at the same time (or else may have issue with machine)?

PCV, Hgb, Hct (MCV and/or MCHC can vary)

39

RBC count is the count of how many RBC there are per __

microliter

40

how does the macine count Hb concentration

lyses RBCs to release Hb uses light absorbance/wavelengths to correspon to Hgb

41

__ can falsely increase Hgb concentration

lipemia

42

Hgb concentration x 3 =

PCV%

43

__ and __ measurements reflect the quantity/# of RBCs in the blood

RBC count and Hgb concentration

44

terms used to describe the MCV that aid in dz classification

Macrocytic, normocytic, microcytic

45

when RBC size is more variable than normal, the RDW __

increases = check blood film for anisocytosis

note: RDW = SD/MCV

46

In an animal with a regenerative anemia the RDW would be

increased/wide due to large immature RBCs (polychromatophils) released by BM

47

The spun PCV and calculated HCT should be roughtly the same, within __%

3

48

If PCV and HCT are not the same what should you use

properly spun PCV over calculated HCT

49

__ can be made false when certain dz are present like autoagglutination

HCT (it is a calculation, not a direct measurement like spun PCV)

50

What does the machine use to calculate HCT

RBC count and MCV

HCT = RBC count x MCV / 10

51

what words are used to describe MCHC variations

hyperchromic, normochromic, hypochromic (rem hgb makes the cell look red)

52

When is a TRUE hypochromasia/decreased MCHC seen?

Fe deficiency anemia, RBC actually have less Hb and on blood film the central palar will be increased

53

What is a non true hypchromasia/decreased MCHC

BM makes lots of new RBC due to anemia, RBC do not have all their Hb yet = hypochromic, but not so on blood film.

54

__ is essentially always an artifact due to hemolysis or interference with hgb measurements (lipemia, heinz bodies, elevated WBC)

Increased MCHC or HYPERchromasia

55

__ are denatured Hgb that sticks to the inside of the RBC due to oxidative damage (onions, garlic can casue)

Heinz bodies

56

If you have an elevated PCV and TP what should you check

If it's an artifact ie. if the animal recently exercised (sweat, lose fluids, hemoconcentration increases)

57

increased PCV and TP is hallmark of

dehydration (fluid component of blood reduced - RBC and proteins concentrated)

58

Increase in PCV due to dehydration is termed __ and increased TP due to dehydration is termed __

relative erythrocytosis (polycythemia), hyperproteinemia

59

If take a sample from a horse post exercise and the PCV is normal but the TP is high, what do you expect?

Anemia! (both values should be high, hemoconcentration due to dehydration is masking the anemia in this horse)