What are the other 3 names for procedural memory?
- Implicit memory
- Reflexive memory
What is procedural memory?
Skills and habits that have been used so much they are automatic
What are the 2 anatomic substrates for Procedural memory and function of each?
- Cerebellum - motor skills
- Nucleus accumbens - non-motor
What is declarative (aka explicit) memory?
The conscious recognition/recollection of learned facts and experiences
Declarative (aka explicit) memory is subdivided into 2 forms, what are they and what is each used for?
1) Episodic = memory of events
2) Semantic = memory of words, language, and rules
What are the conditions of Post-tetanic stimulation?
- Brief, high-frequency discharge of presynaptic neuron
- Produces increase in NT release that lasts about 60 seconds
- Increases probability of AP in post-synaptic cell
What is the mechanism of Post-tetanic stimulation?
- High levels of stimulation allow more Ca2+ to enter terminal than could be “dealt” with
- More Ca2+ = more vesicles fuse
- Leading to greater NT release and greater probability of AP in post-synaptic cell
What is defined as a series of changes in the pre- and post-synaptic neurons of a synapse which leads to increased response to the released NT?
Answering a test question is an example of what kind of memory?
What is the mechanism of Long-term potentiation (LTP)?
- Increased phosphorylation of AMPA receptors and insertion of additional AMPA receptors into post-synaptic membrane
- Eventually, activation of calcium-calmodulin-CREB mechanism
__________ is the process by which labile memory is stabilized (making a memory permanent)
Which changes are seen at the synapse for short term memory vs. long term memory?
- Short term memory: associated with more synaptic chemical changes
- Long term memory: associated with more structural changes
During retrieval of a memory where in the brain is the full memory reconstructed?
Which part of the brain brings all the components from the cortical memories into working memory before sending this information to the hippocampus?
Consolidating a memory from short- to long-term requires which 4 areas of the brain?
- Temporal lobes
- Papez circuit
- Cingulate cortex
Which area of the brain is important in prolonging the life of the cortical “trace” of a memory as we continually recall and then restore that memory?
The phonological loop of working memory involves which areas?
Wernicke’s and Brocas area (verbal information)
The visuospatial loop of working memory involves which area of the brain?
The central executive of working memory requires which area of the brain?
Unlike other long-term memories, a detailed memory of space is stored where?
Utilizing which cells?
- Special pyramidal cells in CA1 known as place cells
Where are Grid cells located and what is their function?
- Entorhinal cortex
- Work in conjunction with place cells
- Spacing and orientation between fields and a reference point
What is believed to act as an ‘anchor’ to the entire memory?
Spatial memory utilizing place cells (hippocampus) and grid cells (entorhinal cortex)
Hearing a French speaker and later noticing French food more often wherever you go is an example of implicit or explicit memory?
What are the 3 components of working (short-term) memory?
- Phonological loop
- Visuospatial loop
- Central executive
Long-term non-declarative memproes are widely stored where?
Sites related to motor behavior
Describe the mechanism during LTP that causes an increase Na+ influx in response to future ligand binding.
- Calcium enters the post-synaptic cell via NMDA channels and binds to calmodulin
- Increase in AC –> Increase in cAMP –> Phosphorylation of AMPA receptor
- Phosphorylated AMPA remains open allowing more Na+ to enter post-synaptic cell
Describe the mechanism during LTP that causes an increase NT release from the pre-synaptic cell.
- Calcium enters the NMDA receptor and binds to calcineurin
- Increases NOS –> produces NO which diffuses to pre-synaptic cell and increases cGMP
- Leads to an increased NT release from the pre-synaptic cell
Where are the Place cells located and what do they respond to?
- Located in hippocampus
- Fire when in a specific place, not just while in a room; respond even stronger when in a specific place in a room where a reward occurred