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Flashcards in Lecture 4-ADHD Deck (22):

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is Now called _______ Disorder



ADHD combined =

ADHD inattentive =

ADHD hyperactive/impulsive =

ADHD combined: innatention & hyperactive/ impulsive

ADHD inattentive: innatention only

ADHD hyperactive/impulsive: hyperactive/ impulsive only


ADHD definition:

Starts before age ___

Symptoms must be in _____ since brain is messed up all the time

Must cause ____ disability

12; multiple settings; Social


6 _____ symptoms for _____ months:

Poor attention to details -> mistakes

Cannot sustain attention

Does not listen

Does not follow through

Does not organize

Avoids tasks

Loses things

Is distracted

Is forgetful

inattention; 6


_____ hyperactive/impulsive symptoms:


Leaves seat


Not quiet

Talks a lot

Blurts out

Cannot wait turn




Most often apparent at _____ age where age appropriate norms for paying attention and delaying gratification are not met

Milder and more ______ cases may not be noticed until later in life when demands are greater

Inattentiveness tends to persist greater then hyperactivity/impulsivity, so the more adult you get the ______ hyperactive you get

young; inattentive; less


ADHD is _____, one inherits bad genes for _____ receptors and _____ transmission.

heritable; DA/ NE; DA/ NE


____ = vigilance & fires in normal people. ____ does not fire as much in ADHD (hypoactive).



In ADHD you get what low neurotransmitters?



_____ Factors that look like ADHD:

Cigarette use/alcohol use in pregnancy

Lead poisoning

Head injuries

High sugar?

Food color additives?

A learned behavior?

A reaction to stress?



The most co-occuring disease with ADHD is _____ disorder.



What type of medications do we give for ADHD? What neurotransmitters do they act on? Side effects?

The stimulant class has great efficacy in adults, teens, children.

They promote DA and NE increase activity. Stimulants block the DA & NE reuptake pumps.

Most carry risk of addiction,Paranoia in misuse, Stunt growth, & weight loss


Name the non-stimulant ADHD drugs (3). Risk of addiction? Side effects? As effective as stimulants?

The non-stimulants (atomoxetine (NE reuptake inhibitor) and (Guanfacine ER and Clonidine ER (alpha-2 NE agonists) have less efficacy.

But carry no addiction risk. Anything that does dopamine reuptake inhibition may become addicting.

Interestingly all are often sedating.

Guanfacine ER and Clonidine ER may lower blood pressure.

These are not as effective as stimulants?


Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in helping _____ ADHD symtoms.



You try behavioral therapy ____. Then you go to _____.

first; stimulants


Slow release Methylphenidate and Amphetamines are less addicting (since slow release so slow kick) and less embarrassing (no nurses office visits) & are used for ____ and ___ first.

Adults get ___ addictive and _____ effective meds first since ADHD is a Dx of exclusion.

kids and teens; non; lesser


Non stimulants:

______ is a norepi reuptake inhibitor only, which makes _____ neurotransmission better!

_____ ER and _____ ER Agonize or stimulate the alpha-2 norepinephrine receptor, which make _____ neurotransmission better!

Atomoxetine; Glutamate; Guanfacine; clonidine; Glutamate


Discuss some negative effects of living with ADHD.

ADHD patients tend to have less school, less powerful jobs, lower self esteem, greater antisocial behavior, greater addiction rates, greater divorce rates but equal rates of medical illness


A 19 year old college student presents and meets criteria for ADHD inattentive type. What other psychiatric disorder will he most likely have outside of his ADHD?

A. Anxiety

B. Bipolar

C. Depression

D. Alcoholism

A. Anxiety

Anxiety is the number one co-occurring illness with ADHD.


A 30 year old ADHD patient has failed to respond to methylphenidate (Ritalin), which of the following likely has a stronger effect on dopamine release in the brain?

A. Guanfacine ER

B. Atomoxetine

C. Amphetamine

D. Clonidine ER

C. Amphetamine


A 15 year old with ADHD combined type has a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. What is the most likely finding?

A. Hyperactive amygdala

B. Hypoactive cerebellum

C. Hyperactive orbitofrontal cortex

D. Hypoactive anterior cingulates

D. Hypoactive anterior cingulates


Concerned parents ask you why their 14 year old son has ADHD and want to know if there is problem with his brain, you can suggest theoretically that

A. At age 2 he had synaptic pruning too quickly

B. At age 8 he had excessive pruning

C. At age 14 his brain may be a few years behind his peers in maturing by way of appropriate synaptic pruning

C. At age 14 his brain may be a few years behind his peers in maturing by way of appropriate synaptic pruning

There is a 2 yr delay compared to peers without ADHD