Lecture 4: Philosophical and Theological Approaches 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4: Philosophical and Theological Approaches 1 Deck (77):
1

what are the 4 general stages of studying religion

premodern
modern
stage 3
post modern

2

what is included in stage one

theology and philosophy

classical and contemporary forms of theology and philosophy

3

what is included in stage 2

social sciences and history

classical and contemporary forms of social-scientific and historical analysis

4

what is included in stage 3

phenomenology

classical and contemporary phenomenologies of religion

5

what is included in stage 4

post-structuralism

contemporary forms of "ideology" critique

6

“Academic” study of religion begins with what

philosophical and theological speculation

7

what is Basicform of Academic” study of religion

Wisdomattainedthroughrationality

8

what does philosophia mean

loveof wisdom

9

to be a human is to be what

rational (aka Aristotle’s definition of human bein)

10

what is zoon logon echon

Aristotle’s definition of human being

11

what are the Key elements of The Philosophical Approach

Logical thinking
• Ascetic practice (“self-discipline”)
• Cultivation of moral virtues
• Mind’s relationship to the cosmos

12

what is Ascetic practice

self-discipline

13

for the The Philosophical Approach, Divide between what is particular to the West

Divide between “reason” (philosophy) and “faith” (religion) is particular to the West

14

when does the Divide between “reason” (philosophy) and “faith” (religion) is particular to the West begin

Begins with the early Greeks and peaks by the time of the Enlightenment (18th century).

15

do eastern cultures have the same Divide between “reason” (philosophy) and “faith” (religion) as the west

Eastern cultures don’t have such a split

16

what are the eastern words for “religion”or“philosophy”

they do not have words

17

what is "Darshana"

viewpoint, perspective, worldview

word associated with the eastern cultures and their lack of words for religion and philosophy

18

Why the Western emphasis on philosophical approach

“[T]here has been insufficient work on collating the history of Eastern
reflections on the human religious impulse” (R&H, p. 20)

The desire to cordon off thought from objects of study in the West (to develop a “discipline” separate from the “phenomena” it investigates) led to a unilinear development that isn’t as easily identifiable in a worldview (darshana) that doesn’t divide the world up in those terms

The study of religion, its categories and distinctions, grow from a Western concern to understand aspects of reality “separate” from one another

19

what were Early thinking of philosophical approaches

Speculation as “mythopoetic,” storytelling:
• Cosmogonies (stories about world origins)
• Hesiod (c.700sBCE): narrates about the gods, their origins and correlations with nature, natural forces, depicting their interaction with the cosmos in terms of a steady decline and ages of strife.
• Similar ideas in Eastern darshanas (Hindu“religious”texts,the Vedas, for example) that correlate divine powers with the natural world and cycles of time (yugas) marked by progressive deterioration. Interestingly, some of the gods share names and attributes with Greek counterparts (e.g., the Vedic god Varuna, associated with the sky, is cognate with the Greek god Ouranos/Uranus).

20

what was Early Greek thinking (regard to The Philosophical Approach)

Pre-Socratic philosophers (6th century BCE): shift from the mythopoetic to the “conceptual.”
Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. “Naturalistic” expression of divine influence in the world. The gods = water, air, fire, etc.
• Anaximander (c.610-546BCE): the apeiron (formless essence), ineffable source, gives rise to the dualities we experience (hot/cold, wet/dry, etc.). Similar ideas appear in early Vedic texts (the Upanishads).
• e.g. Brahmin in Hindu traditions, from which all things emerge, and the Dao in early Daoism, from which all duality (Yin and Yang) emerges and returns.

21

what is meant by “Naturalistic” expression of divine influence

The gods = water, air, fire, etc

22

when did Anaximander live

610-546BCE

23

what is the apeiron

formless essence

24

what did Anaximander think

the apeiron (formless essence), ineffable source, gives rise to the dualities we experience (hot/cold, wet/dry, etc.). Similar ideas appear in early Vedic texts (the Upanishads

25

what do all things emerge from

Brahmin in Hindu traditions

26

when did Plato live

427-347

27

what did plato believe

bridge between mythopoetic speculation about the gods and the full-blown metaphysics of Aristotle: cosmogonic myths about the gods are the result of poetic imagination and do not qualify as true knowledge of the divine, the true form of the Good (not to be confused with God)

28

what are the 2 types of cognition

knowledge and opinion

29

what is knowledge divided into

Noesis (thought) and dianoia (reasoning)

30

what is reasoning

proud resting on the premises or assumption which are not themselves proved

31

what is thought

the highest form cognition

32

what is the object of thought

forms (intelligible)

33

what is the object of reasoning

mathematical object (intelligible)

34

what is opinion divided into

pistis (belief, trust) and eikasia (imagining, conjecture)

35

what is belief, trust

sense perceptipn

36

what is imagining, conjecture

a poor imitation of sense perception

37

what is the object of belief, trust

material objects (visible)

38

what is the object of imagining, conjecture

images of material objects (visible)

39

when was Aristotle

384-322 BCE

40

the intelligibility of “God-talk” is ranked as what according to Aristotle

positive form of speculation that Aristotle calls theology (Metaphysics vi).

41

aristotle believes what about theology

Theology is a theoretical philosophy that literally comes “after physics”; it is a form of metaphysics. Aristotle thus effectively and non-evaluatively discriminates talk about the gods from talk about nature

42

what was Philosophy in the East like

The Vaisheshíka school (5th cent. BCE): views of physics that parallel early Greek thinkers like Leucippus (5th cent. BCE) and Democritus (c. 460 – c. 370 BCE). Unlike the Greeks, Vaisheshíka posited the units of nature as relative reality, not absolute reality

43

who was Siddhartha Gautama

the Buddha

44

when did the Buddha exist

5th cent. BCE

45

what did the Buddha do

emphasizes ‘orthopraxy’ (right practice) as opposed to ‘orthodoxy’ (right belief) about reality. Speculation concerning reality causes us to cling to impermanence which leads to suffering. Reality is transient and impermanent. This teaching is enshrined in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path

46

what did Buddhist schools do

translate the Buddha’s practice into philosophical categories

47

when did Nagarjuna live

c. 150-c.250 CE

48

who is Nagarjuna

founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism

49

what is the “Great Vehicle”

founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism

50

what do buddhist schools do

Developed the Buddha’s idea of impermanence in terms of “emptiness” (sunyata), the emptiness of all things, and how nothing arises or exists independently (pratityasamutpada)

51

Hindu schools that move from practice to what

speculation

52

when did Shankara live

788-820CE

53

who was Shankara and what did they do

indian philosopher
Advaita Vedanta school (non-dualism): expounds
“esoteric” teachings about ultimate truth: Brahman or ultimate reality

54

what is "Nirvana Brahman"

ultimate reality "without qualities"
I.e. nothing can be attributed o or said about this dimension of reality. It is supremely real, ineffable.
Nirvana Brahman is "concealed," "hidden" in

55

what is Saguna Brahman

ultimate reality we can and do know by virtue of existing. This dimension concerns reality ‘with qualities’, which the teachings and practices are about. This is the plane of dharma, which describes and relates to ultimate reality in ways we might categorize as religious (see “Categories” slide in “Orientation” group). Knowledge and practice in this plane allows us to escape the world of ignorance

56

what is Western philosophy through the middle ages

“Revelation” complicates the issue of how reason and faith relate
Effectively: philosophy becomes theology

57

what are the 2 types of theology in western philosophy

one dependent on reason (as in Aristotle) and one dependent on faith (as in the Abrahamic traditions)

58

The world view supporting “theology” in ancient Greece is different than what

supporting the Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

59

medieval expressions of faith try to what

harmonize reason and faith (western philosophy)

60

when was Thomas Aquinas

1225-1274

61

what did Thomas Aquinas do

combined philosophy and theology

62

Method becomes an explicit preoccupation with who

Aquinas

63

what is Disputatio (Thomas Aquinas' thing)

a way of organizing an argument, a dispute.

64

flip card and just read

The world of the summa occasioned this heightened appreciation of objects (summa: the ‘sum total’ of topics following a cycle that moves from infinity, with the existence of God, to finite time, the creation of the world, the human condition, God’s solution, back to infinity, union with God). Aquinas’s Summa Theologica is prefaced with ten methodological-type questions concerning the nature of theology (see myCourses reading)

65

what was muslim theology in 10th and 11th centuries

Muslim natural philosophers (hukama) developed medicine,
astronomy, and mathematics unparalleled in the Christian West

Medieval speculation was made possible by preserving, commenting on, and engaging the thought of ancient Greek thinkers as Plato and Aristotle translated by Muslim thinkers

66

when was Averroes/IbnRushd

1126-1198

67

what did Averroes/IbnRushd do

commentariesofAristotlewereterribly influential on Aquinas

68

when did Avicenna/IbnSina live

980-1037

69

what did Avicenna/IbnSina do

was also an important for bearer in this regard (influencing both Muslim and Christian scholastics)

70

when was Al-Ghazali alive

1058-1111

71

what did Al-Ghazali and Jewish thinker Moses Maimonides do

were also pivotal figures in the resurgence of Aristotle’s thought in Abrahamic theology

72

when was Jewish thinker Moses Maimonides alive

1135-1204

73

Medieval speculation was made possible by preserving, commenting on, and engaging the thought of ancient Greek thinkers as Plato and Aristotle translated by Muslim thinkers. which included;

Averroes/IbnRushd
Avicenna/IbnSina
Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) and the Jewish thinker Moses Maimonides

74

Classical philosophical and theological approaches are what

prescriptive
emancipatory
speculative

75

what is prescriptive

they advocate a class of metaphysical and/or religious ideas forged by speculative reason and/or attained by faith— oftentimes aided by revealed truths

76

what is emancipatory

they provide means by which the human condition is not only addressed but also transformed

77

what is speculative

they are theoretical discourses with prescriptive and emancipatory aims