Lecture 4 - Political Geography Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 - Political Geography Deck (23):
1

Governance

variety of laws, policies and initiatives across time and space that have an effect on a specific location, communities of interest or sector. It includes the work of governments and other members of the policy community, including corporations and non-governmental organizations, etc.

2

Government

focus on the laws, regulations, and policies enacted by government

3

State

a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and sovereignty.

4

Political geography (2)

-the geographic study of politics and political matters
-“is about power, an ever-changing map revealing the struggle over borders, space, and authority”

5

Sovereignty

every state recognizes every other state’s right to exist and control its own affairs within its territorial boundaries

6

(Political) territoriality (3)

-a learned cultural response
-uses power to control an area and communicate that control, thereby subjugating the inhabitants and acquiring resources
-thoroughly cultural-geographical phenomenon

7

Colonialism

The building and maintaining of colonies in ones territories by people based elsewhere

8

Nation-state

An independent country dominated by a relatively homogenous cultural group

9

Enclave

Piece of territory surrounded by a country but not ruled by it (Lesotho in South Africa)

10

Exclave

Piece of national territory separated by a state (Russian Baltic Seaport)

11

Buffer state (2)

-independent but small and weak country lying between two powerful, potentially belligerent countries
-Mongolia: in between China and Russia

12

Satellite state

Small weak country dominated by one powerful neighbour to the extent that some or much of its independence is lost

13

Natural boundary (2)

-follows some feature of the natural environment, such as a mountain ridge or river
-mountain, desert, water

14

Ethnographic boundaries

follows some cultural border, such as linguistic or religious

15

Geometric boundaries

Drawn in a regular, geometric manner, often a straight line, without regard to environmental or cultural patterns

16

Relic boundaries (2)

-former political border that no longer functions as a boundary
-often leave behind a trace in the local cultures

17

Unitary state (2)

-Independent state that concentrates power in the central government and grants little authority to the provinces
-all major decisions come from the central government, and policies are applied uniformly throughout the national territory

18

Federal states

-independent country that gives considerable powers and even autonomy to its constituent parts

19

Territorial fission (2)

-specific ethnic group wants independence or change of boundaries through peaceful negotiation, armed forces
-South Sudan

20

Supranational organization (2)

-Group of independent countries joined together for purposes of mutual interest
-sometimes take the form of regional trading blocs

21

Regional trading blocs (2)

-agreements made among geographically proximate countries that reduce trade barriers so the nations will be better able to compete with other regional markets
-NAFTA

22

Gerrymandering (2)

-take very powerful GIS and map tools, so that every district can get votes
-Donald Duck and Goofy

23

Geopolitics (3)

-Influence of habitat on political ethnicities
-is constantly shifting and trying to find equilibrium
-look for infrastructure borders