Flashcards in Lecture 4: Tumores of the CNS Part II Deck (17):
What is significance of CNS neoplasms?
Second most common cancer in children under 15 y.o (second to leukemia)
What is the age distribution of brain tumors?
Peak incidence in children younger than 5
Example: medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma
Second larger peak in adults from 45-70
(glioblastoma, metastatic carcinoma)
Meningiomas = females
Gliomas/embryomas = males
What are brain tumors strongly associated with?
Ionizing radiation (x-irradiation) from X-rays and CT scans?
-hematologic malignancies under treatment
Not associated with
What are the manifestations of tuberous sclerosis? Genetics?
1. cutaneous angiofibroma (looks like potato?)
2. subungual fibromas
3. cardiac rhabdomyomas
4. intestinal polyps
5. renal agniomyolipomas
Chromsome 9 and 16…TSC1/TSC2 gene
What is the gene locus for NF1?
What is the gene locus for NF2
What is the significance of Li-Fraumeni syndrome?
It is a type of glioma (secondary GBM?)
-it “doubles up” after you get lung cancer?
Associated with other cancers
Anything with “syndrome” is associated with other cancers
17p13 at gene TP53
LEADS TO CARCINOMA
What are the Different types of symptoms/signs depending on tumor location?
i. epilepsy (focal/generalized)
ii. focal neurological deficit
iii. mental changes
-tumor in hippocampus = schizophrenia
iv. obstructive hydrocephalus (headache)
What are the symptoms of increased intracranial pressure?
i. headache (postural, nocturnal, early morning)
ii. vomiting (particularly in children…of course!)
iv. clouding of consciousness and coma
How do you differentiate between psychogenic headache (due to stress) or neoplastic headache?
Psychogenic headache = unremitting over long peeriods of time…described with a shitload of metaphor
Neoplastic headache are aggravated by nausea and vomiting
What brain tumor is associated with immunodeficiency?
Primary CNS lymphomas
From AIDS or transplant
How do you get herniation with brain tumors?
Herniation seen as sequelae to raised intracranial pressure
What are the different sites of herniation?
i. Subfalcine herniation
ii. Transtentorial herniation of the parahippocampal gyrus
iii. Bilateral (central) transtentorial or diencephalic herniation
iv. Tonsillar herniation
v. Superior cerebellar herniation
What is a duret hemorrhage?
Small areas of bleeding in the ventral and paramedian parts of the upper brainstem
What are potential consequences of herniation?
1. blood vessels compression
2. nerves compression
Question: A 37 year old female was diagnosed with bilateral acoustic-vestibular scwannoma (CN 8). Which familial syndrome does she have?
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)