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What functions does the skeleton provide?

Support, movement, protection, storage and blood cell formation.


What are the two types of bone tissue and where are they found?

Compact: A dense bone type, found where strength and weight load bearing are needed (mainly in the centre/diaphysis of the bone).
Cancellous/spongy: a bone type which consists primarily of trabeculae found where shock absorption is needed (ends/epiphysis of the bones).


What are the four bone classes and what are their features?

Long bones: Longer than they are wise, consist of a shaft known as the diaphysis and extremities known as the epiphyses, typically act as levers for movement. Compact bone is thicker in the diaphysis. E.g humerus

Short bones: Near equal in width and length which function mainly for weight bearing/ shock absorption and which consist mostly of cancellous bone. E.g carpal bones.

Flat bones: Function primarily as protection bones e.g cranial bones or muscle attachment sites e.g scapula. Consist of spongy bone sandwiched between two compact bone layers.

Irregular bones: have variable shapes and functions, typically contain holes e.g vertebrae.


What are the two skeletal divisions

The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.


What does the axial skeleton consist of?

Axial: The skull (which consists of the cranium, facial bones and mandible) and the vertebral column (which contains the 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumber vertebrae and the sacrum and coccyx) and the rib cage (which consists of 12 pairs of ribs (24 in total), the first seven sets are known as true ribs, the next 5 are known as false ribs and the last two of which are known as floating ribs, also contains the sternum.)


What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?

All limb bones, including attachment sites to the axial skeleton (clavicle, scapula, hip bones, arm, forearm, thigh and leg).


What do we use our two limb sets for?

Upper limbs are used for manipulation of our environment and the lower limbs are used for stability and locomotion.


How are our limbs structured?

A single proximal bone, two distal long bones, followed by the hands or feet.


What are the limb attachment sites? What skeleton are they in?

The pectoral (shoulder) girdle: contains the clavicle and scapula and attaches the arm (humerus) to the axial skeleton
The pelvic girdle: Consists of two hip bones and the sacrum (the pelvis), attaches the thigh (femur) to the axial skeleton.
Both of these girdles are part of the appendicular skeleton (except for the sacrum, which is in the axial).


What bones are in the upper limb?

The humerus most proximally followed by the radius and ulna and then most distally are the hands, which contain 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpals (one at the start of each finger/thumb) and then 3 phalanges for each finger(known as the distal middle and proximal phalanx) (except for the thumb which has 2).


What bones are in the lower limb?

Most proximally is the femur, distal to this are the tibia(the larger one) and the fibula(smaller one), most distally are the feet which consist of 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsals (one for each toe) and 3 phalanges per toe (known as the distal, middle and proximal phalanx) (except the big one, which has 2).