Lecture 5&6: Degenerative Disease and Coordinating Death Processes Flashcards Preview

MEDS 577 PC FINAL > Lecture 5&6: Degenerative Disease and Coordinating Death Processes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 5&6: Degenerative Disease and Coordinating Death Processes Deck (48)
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1

What is paralysis?

Loss of strength/control over a muscle or a group of muscles in a part of the body

2

What part of the body does localized paralysis affect?

Affects only one part of the body such as face, hands, feet, or vocal cords

3

What part of the body does generalized paralysis affect?

Affects a wider area of the body

4

Generalized paralysis: Monoplegia

one limb only

5

Generalized paralysis: Hemiplegia

one side of body

6

Generalized paralysis: Diplegia

same area on both sides of the body

7

Generalized paralysis: Paraplegia

both legs and sometimes parts of the trunk

8

Generalized paralysis: Quadriplegia

both arms and legs or entire area below neck (heart, lungs, and other organs might also be affected

9

What are the most common pathways to paralysis?

congenital, acquired (trauma), acquired (neuromuscular), acquired (infectious), and acquired (toxic)

10

Congenital paralysis examples

Cerebral palsy, spina bifida, hydrocephalus

11

Acquired (trauma) paralysis examples

spinal cord/head trauma, stroke, brain tumor

12

Acquired (neuromuscular) paralysis examples

Parkinson's, Multiple sclerosis, Muscular dystrophy, ALS

13

Acquired (infectious) examples

polio, Spinal TB, Guillain-Barre, Acute Flaccid Paralysis, tick/mosquito-borne encephalitis, malaria, meningitis

14

Acquired (toxic) examples

Ciguatera, botulin, puffer, mushroom, pesticides, arsenic, lead

15

Complications of Paralysis and Mobility Issues (5)

1. Problems with blood flow, breathing, and heart rate
2. Altered function of organs/glands, urine/fecal incontinence
3. Atrophy/contractions of muscles, joints, and bones
4. Skin injuries and pressure sores; blood clots
5. Social problems: sexual, speaking, swallowing, isolation, behavior and mood changes

16

What are the 3 management principles?

1. Address problems resulting from the tissue
2. Enable the person to live as independently as possible
3. Provide the person with a high quality of life

17

What are the 2 ways to pharmaceutically manage paralysis/mobility complications?

1. Controlling neuropathic pain
2. Control spasticity

18

Non-Pharmaceutical Management (8)

1. Physical therapy
2. Occupational therapy
3. Mobility aids
4. Gait training
5. Supportive devices
6. Assistive technology
7. Adaptive equipment
8. Family assessment and involvement

19

physical therapy

heat, massage, passive/active exercise

20

occupational therapy

concentrates on ways to perform ADL

21

mobility aids

manual and electric wheelchairs and scooters

22

gait training

improve mobility and reduce fall risks

23

supportive devices

braces, canes, staffs, walkers

24

assistive technology

voice-activated computers, lighting systems, and telephones

25

adaptive equipment

special eating utensils and controls for driving a car

26

family assessment and involvement

engagement of family members, addressing caregiver burden

27

What is a surgical management technique?

deep brain stimulation

28

What are the physical risk factors associated with falls? (9)

1. older age/muscle weakness/frailty/arthritis/low vit. D
2. mobility disorders (arthritis, paralysis, neuromuscular, injuries)
3. chronic pain, fear of falling again
4. diabetes, anemia, thyroid, cardiovascular, dehydration
5. foot disorders
6. vertigo (dizziness) or balance difficulties
7. sensory disorders, vision or hearing problems, or neuropathy in feet
8. neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders
9. urinary incontinence/frequency

29

Risk of medications for older patients (2)

1. medications take longer to break down and leave
2. more numerous unexpected drug interactions

30

Risks associated with lack of exercise (2)

1. muscles get weaker; joints ache more --> exercise is more challenging
2. staying indoors reduces sun exposure --> reduced vitamin D