Lecture 5 - Cells Flashcards Preview

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resolution

Minimum distance between two objects where the two objects can still be observed.

1

contrast

Visible shades in the object; if all shades are similar, contrast is poor, if shades are very different contrast is high.

2

three things you need for microscopic observation

magnification, contrast, resolution

3

limitations of light microscopy

Light microscopes can resolve objects down to about 2000x (200nm)

4

cell

smallest unit of having properties of life; continuity of life arises from growth and division of single cells; all organisms are composed of one or more

5

properties of life

All organisms
-consist of one or more cells
-have the capacity to reproduce based on DNA
-engage in metabolism/growth
-have order
-internal regulation
-evolve
-sense and respond to the environment

6

why are cells small?

interior volume increases significantly faster than surface area as cell size grows, limiting cell transport processes, creating inefficiencies

7

prokaryote

cellular organism lacking membrane-enclosed organelles (like the nucleus)

8

early cells

- appeared 3.5-4.0b YPB
- earliest were prokaryotic and anaerobic
- all cells have plasma membrane, chromosomes, ribosomes, and cytoplasm

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anaerobic

greek, literally means "living without oxygen"

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eukaryote

have a nucleus and other organelles, split into four kingdoms: plants, protists, fungi, animals

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plasma membranes

Made of phospholipid bilayers, selectively permeable, allows only small, non-polar substances through

12

phospholipids

hydrophilic "head" in contact with water, hydrophobic "tail" hidden from water

13

nucleus function

Keeps DNA separate from metabolic machinery of cytoplasm, aids in autoimmune response by shielding good DNA (yours) from defensive mechanisms designed to break apart foreign DNA

14

nucleolus

In eukaryotes, a structure found inside the nucleus whose function is to transcribe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins to form almost-complete ribosomes.

15

ribosome function

site of translation (where proteins are assembled from amino acids)

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what are ribosomes made of?

rRNA and proteins, two subunits; by weight 60% rRNA to 40% protein

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nucleus composition

made of phospholipid bilayers, same as cell wall

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location of ribosomes

found in endoplasmic reticulum, also free floating in cytoplasm

19

rough endoplasmic reticulum function

process proteins, makes more membrane

20

smooth endoplasmic reticulum function

builds lipids,
detoxification,
storage,
etc.

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what is endoplasmic reticulum composed of?

phospholipid bilayer

22

location of endoplasmic reticulum

starts at nuclear membrane, extends throughout cytoplasm

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Golgi body function

puts finishing touches on proteins and lipids that arrive from endoplasmic reticulum

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Golgi body composition

phospholipid bilayer

25

Golgi body location

In cytoplasm, not connected to endoplasmic reticulum

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vesicles function

Transport material from organelles and plasma membranes; break down waste and toxins

27

vesicles composition

phospholipid bilayer

28

Lysosomes

type of vesicles that digest large molecules, used in defence

29

Vacuoles

vesicles found in plants, various functions