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What are the 4 dimensions of stress?

The 4 dimensions of stress:

1. positive vs. negative events

2. uncontrollable and unpredictable

3. ambiguous events that you can't make sense of

4. college stress aka cognitive overload


Can we adapt to stress?

(short term vs. long term stress)

We can adapt to stress up to a certain point. Short-term stressors are easier to adapt to because the stress will eventually lift.


What is the physiological/psychological ways to reduce stress?

you can face it and NOT ignore it

you can find new strategies to help adapt


Why do Vulnerable populations have a harder time adapting to stress?

Because they have less resources, can't complain, and have lack of control.


T or F: Anticipated stress is as stressful as the event itself

True -- anticipated stress is just as stressful


What are the after-effects of stress (cognitive costs)?

After-Effects of Stress → Cognitive Costs

• exhausted and drained

• poorer problem solving

• less likely to help others

• helplessness (motivational problems)

• failure to learn new responses – immobilized


T or F - when you are stressed, you are more likely to help others.



How is "coping" defined?

Coping -

• just a set of responses which interact with the person and environment


T or F: Personality has nothing to do with stress and coping style.

False - pessimistic people tend to be more negatively affected, leading to poorer ways to coping with stressors.


What are the 2 different Coping Styles?

Which one works best for which situations?

Avoidant (passive) - best for Short Term situations

Confrontational (active) - best for Long Term situations


What are the 2 different Coping Strategies?

Emotion focused orientation - regulate and monitor my emotional experience

Problem-solving oriented - playing chess with my problems; no emotional anchor


What are the 4 areas of Social Support?

4 areas of SOCIAL SUPPORT:

1• emotional support: reassurance, nurturance

2• informational support: someone helps to solve problem that I don’t know

3• tangible assistance: material support such as services and goods (tools to fix or a service to fix my car)

4• appraisal support: helping to understand a person a problem better; helping to Make Sense of a situation


How well does Social Support Work?

It works as a MODERATING variable and as a Direct effect by:

• reducing psychological distress
o reducing depression
• lowering likelihood of illness
• speeding up recovery
• reducing mortality


When does social support NOT work?

If the support is controlling or directive (controlling parents)


Langer's article about Patient Empowerment found what about nursing home individuals?

Langer introduced CHOICES to see if it would increase their happiness.

The intervention group was told they have influence over their own lives and told them they were Responsible for their own lives.

They got to choose the plants, movies; etc.


What's the difference between Chronic and Terminal illness?

Chronic illness affects millions of people, but they don't necessarily have a death sentence like those who are diagnosed with Terminal illness.


What is the total number of Chronic Ailments in the US?

140 billion


How do people cope with Chronic ailments?

If someone feels their environment is CONTROLLABLE, it is a huge factor for coping.

They also need to feel a Realistic Sense that they aren't dying.


What are some frustrations or problems with chronic ailments?

1. Rehab - people have a hard time with their physical problems

2. Side Effects of medication

3. Adherence to a new regimen

4. Using unproven remedies with no info about side effects or interactions with western medications

5. Cognitive impairment - stressors pile on and the more meds you take, the more impaired you get.


What are some problems faced with Terminal illness?

1. When should you stop treatment?

2. Should you go to a hospice when giving up on medication?

3. Euthanasia - should they be able to make their own decision?


How might the life of someone who has terminal illness, be affected?

• patients should adjust to where they’re at with their disorder (dying, ill, idea of no longer being who you were; etc)

• self-concept – how patients present themselves to family and community

• pure rejection of social support – saying goodbye to the patient and patient pushes them away;

• disengagement/withdraw of social world ¬–
o steve jobs – watched endless hours of tv

• problems with communications

o physical and mental; don’t know how to talk to each other


T or F: The federal government has the most impact on health agencies.

False - State and Local health officials have most impact


Reyes syndrome, TSS, and MADD were all legislations under what group?

Special interest groups


T or F: Reporters are the enemy of health institutions and politicians.

False - reporters need special interest groups to narrate a story for them so it's important to have a positive relationship between politicians and groups.


What are the 4 types of narratives that the Press tells?

o Fire alarm story – deadly outbreaks (tuberculosis), high risk once believed to be mundane (drinking coffee is fine; once in a blue moon there are stories about coffee “killing you”)

o Breakthroughs – cures, progress of things (HIV vaccine)

o Controversies – health labeling issues (creatine was added to protein powders because of Conseco – it is a derivative of steroids)

o Human Interest stories – personal stories; case studies of people down on their luck or mistreated by the healthcare system; Christmas holiday time has most Human Interest stories


What is the role of the NIH?

NIH – Decentralized, research grants; doesn’t pursue emergencies and not reactive for “sensational” emergencies; they don’t make recommendations


What is the role of the FDA?

FDA - evaluations for drug trials;


What is the role of the CDC?

CDC conducts lab work for disease outbreaks; training;

CDC will React to emergencies (to outbreaks); react to health crisis; technical assistance; provides Guidance


What is the role of the Surgeon General ?

Surgeon General – honorary position; role doesn’t mean much – they just spread information to the masses; used to run the public health service;

Visibility – they talk to media


What is the role of the Assistant Secretary of Health?

Assistant Secretary of Health–

Public health regulations; animal; medical check-ups; pro-life vs. pro-choice stuff; overlooks to make sure things are being implemented when they should be implemented