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wht are some important cultural aspects to consider?

> based on casual observations
- over generations
- over millennia
> wide spread in time and space
> not necessarily testing hypotheses
> not always statistically amenable


what are some aspects of scientific knowledge?

> based on intensive directed studies
> confined to a specific context in space and time
. not always generally applicable to other places and times
> hypotheses often reductionist sometimes ignoring important factors


what is the taxonomic status of dingoes?

> have had lots of names since european settlement
> 1980's Canis familiaris dingo
- because the dog was C. familiaris and the dingo was a sub-species
> lately, Canis lupus dingo
- because recent DNA testing indicates dingoes descend from C.lupus (wolf) - so does the dog
> there is still debate e.g., Crowther et al. 2014 argue for Canis dingo
> dingoes do interbreed with feral C.lupus familiaris (dog)


are dingoes native or feral?

> firstly, fleming et al 2012 argue that all wild dogs in australi are non-native n the strictest sence
- they are domesticated versions of wolves descending from canids that became feral
> carthey and banks 2012 argue that they should be considered and treated as natives
- in australia for 4000 years
- prey species respond to them as predators more than they do to more recent arrivals
- they have assumed important functional roles in ecosystems as top predators


do dingoes harm conservation or aid it?

> aid it
> they are top predators that suppress 'mesopredators'
> mesopredator release hypothesis
- dingoes suppress cats and foxes
- cats and foxes are major threats to CWR mammals
> cessation of dingo control benefits threatened mammal and other populations
> density of foxes always low in presence of high densities of dingoes
> dingoes make cats shift their activity patterns and hunt in suboptimal conditions
> dingoes also kill and eat cats


do dingoes have any benefits to vegetation?

> yes
> dingoes regulate kangaroo populations
> dampening the boom and bust cycles seen in outback australia
> avoiding overgrazing of grass when roo numbers are particularly high
> mitigating effects of erosion and soil loss following ground cover loss


what is the legislated conservation status of dingoes?

> protected in the NT
> may be controlled in te ACT with authorisation
> controlled south of the fence in SA, somewhat protected to the north
> prohibited in tasmanina
> controlled as pest species in Vic, NSW and WA, except in parks where they are protected


what is the dingoe protection status of queensland?

> protected in national parks and other protected areas
> still widespread
> the dingo is not endangered
> may be in danger of becoming hybridised with feral dogs


what is the health status of dingoes on fraser island?

> a perception they rely on human provided human food
- deliberate feeding is now band
- inadvertent feeding from camp sites ( open unattended food boxes etc)
- discarded food
- fish scraps left by anglers
- picnic areas and rubbish dumps (now fenced off)
> most are lean, rather than thin
> slightly heavier than mainland dingoes
> leaner than many domestic dogs which are often overweight.


what do dingoes eat

> wallabies and kangaroos where available
> wombats as well, coastal NSW ( and elsewhere)
> townshend island (no wallabies, kangaroos or other large native mammals) goats, then sugar gliders
> shoal water bay ( no goats either): possums, bandicoots and gliders
> during drought when macropods are less common: carrion, often cattle
> in western deserts, smaller mammals such as rabbits, in particular, and CWR natives
> even lizards such as goannas according to availability
> in dense, wet, tropical forest, small (CWR) mammals
> flexible in diet


describe the hunting behaviour of dingoes

> if large mammals available, hunt in groups
> sub packs, 2 or 3, within larger packs 2 to 12 in NW Aust
> ca deal with animals larger than themselves and share the high return from a single successful hunt
> if only small prey available, then hunt alons


what else efects pack size?

> habitat or local vegetation structure might also have an effect on pack size
> closed forest might preclude effective pack hunting
> so perhaps they hunt only small prey in rain forests, even if pademelons or wallabies are available


what has flexability promoted

> flexible diets and behaviour have allowed dingoes into many habitats: they have a wider fundamental niche
> together, as a terrestrial mammal, Canis lupus is more widespread globally than any other except Homo sapiens
> as well as that, they can take advantged of H.sapiens


how do we investigate dingo diet?

>survey techniques are many and various
> include live trapping and camera trapping
> hair trapping
> hair can be identified under microscope, often to species of mammal
> if dingoes ate food randomly, then the proportion of a given species in their diet should equal the proportion of that species in a random sample of those available
> if they prefer a particular species then the proportion of that species in the diet would be higher


what is the electivity index?

> Ei = (ri-ni)/ (ri+ni)
> ri = proportion (or % age) of species i in diet
> ni = proportion (or %age) of species i in environment