Lecture #6 -- Physiology of Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

Physio -- Endocrine > Lecture #6 -- Physiology of Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture #6 -- Physiology of Pregnancy Deck (39):
1

Inner cell mass becomes....
Outer cell mass becomes...

Embryo
Trophoblasts

2

________ adheres to the endometrium.
_______ burrows into the endometrium

Blastocyst
Trophoblast

3

How does the cytotrophoblast avoid immune rejection?

Acceptance is due to immunological pecularity of the trophoblasts

4

Describe the decidua in pregnancy

Stomal cells become round, polygonal
Villi of trophblast cells penetrate and are bathed in blood of spiral arteries

5

Single word to describe the whole placenta blood relationship thing.

Hemochorioendothelial

6

Signigicance of chorionic villi?

They rule out an ectopic pregnancy

7

Who makes HCG
For how long?

Syncytiotrophoblast
7-9 days after the LH surge

8

Describe a scenario in which HCG levels are used to assess presence of an ectopic pregnancy.

HCG should double every 48 hours. If you see bleeding and want to know whether or not it is an indicator of problems, you could check for HCG. If it is continuing to rise at a normal rate, the baby is probably fine. If it rises very slowly, the infant is liekly not developing at a normal rate and may be a n ectopic pregnancy

9

Two Effects of Human Placental Lactogen?

Increases lipolysis
Anti insulin effects to help the fetus get some sugar (but also causes gestational diabetes)

10

Primary source of placental estrogen precursors?

Fetal adrenal glands

11

What does relaxin do?

Cervical softening
(Relaxes symphysis pubis and ligaments)

12

Size, capacity, and thickness of an unpregnant uterus?

70g
10 cc
Thick

13

Size, capacity, and thickness of a pregnant uterus?

1100 g
5 latiers
Thin Wall

14

What are Braxton Hicks contractions?

Sporadic and nonrhythmic contractions beginning the 2nd trimester

15

How does the cervix change over the course of prgnancy

Increased glandular activity/mucus production
12 fold reduction in strength

16

Effects of pregnancy on the vulva/vagina?

Hyperemia, Softening
Leucorrhea

17

What is leucorrhea?

A thick white/yellow vaginal discharge

18

Changes in skin during pregnancy?

Striae
Linea nigra
Chloasma
Spider angiomata

19

What is chloasma?

Pregnancy mask

20

Effect of pregnancy on blood levels

Blood volume increases 40-45%
35% increase in RBC
Causes slight dilutional anemia

21

Pregnancy requirement of iron?

1000 mg

22

Describe clotting changes seen in pregnant women?

Increase concentration of all clotting factors (Except XI and XIII)

23

Why do you give oxytocin after delivery?

Contraction of the uterus is very important for controlling blood loss

24

Effects of Pregnancy on the heart.

HR increases by 10 bpm
In. SV and CO
Dec. systemic resistance

Possible systolic flow murmur

25

Role of Renin/Angiotensin in pregnancy

Normally -- Resistant to Ang II
Preeclampsia -- Inc. sensitivity to Ang II

26

Changes in BP in a normal pregnancy?

Drops in 2nd, Rises in 3rd trimester

27

Why do pregnant women have a lover arterial oxygen content? Response in mother?

Decrease in Hgb
Tidal volume and minute ventilation volume increase (due to progestin activity)

28

In pregnancy, effects on RPF? GFR?

Increase

29

Causes of hydroureter/hydronephrosis in pregnancy?

Enlarged uterus
Effects of progesterone

30

Three GI effects of pregnancy

Gastric Emptying time increases from progesterone
GE Reflux
Constipation

31

Effects of preganncy on thyroid?

Inc Throxine-binding globulin
Relative Iodide Deficiency

32

What is Colostrum?

1st milk
More minerals and protein, but less sugar and fat
Persists abotu 5 days

33

Describe breast milk

Full o' Lactose, Proteins, IgA, Vitamins except K

34

About how much breast milk down a mother make in a day

600 mL

35

What is breat milk typically deficient in?

Iron, supplementation is recomended for baby

36

Why do moms start releaseing their milk after delivery?

Big drop in progesterone
Removes Inhibition on alpha-lactoalbumin production

37

Influence of suckling on prolactin release?

Decreases release of prolactin-inhibiting factor from hypothalamus

38

Prolactin sustains production of...

Casein and other milk constituents

39

How does breast feeding act a s a form of birth control?

High concentration of prolactin inhibit the pulsatile release of GnRH
Inhibits ovarian PRO production