Flashcards in Lecture #6 -- Physiology of Pregnancy Deck (39):
Inner cell mass becomes....
Outer cell mass becomes...
________ adheres to the endometrium.
_______ burrows into the endometrium
How does the cytotrophoblast avoid immune rejection?
Acceptance is due to immunological pecularity of the trophoblasts
Describe the decidua in pregnancy
Stomal cells become round, polygonal
Villi of trophblast cells penetrate and are bathed in blood of spiral arteries
Single word to describe the whole placenta blood relationship thing.
Signigicance of chorionic villi?
They rule out an ectopic pregnancy
Who makes HCG
For how long?
7-9 days after the LH surge
Describe a scenario in which HCG levels are used to assess presence of an ectopic pregnancy.
HCG should double every 48 hours. If you see bleeding and want to know whether or not it is an indicator of problems, you could check for HCG. If it is continuing to rise at a normal rate, the baby is probably fine. If it rises very slowly, the infant is liekly not developing at a normal rate and may be a n ectopic pregnancy
Two Effects of Human Placental Lactogen?
Anti insulin effects to help the fetus get some sugar (but also causes gestational diabetes)
Primary source of placental estrogen precursors?
Fetal adrenal glands
What does relaxin do?
(Relaxes symphysis pubis and ligaments)
Size, capacity, and thickness of an unpregnant uterus?
Size, capacity, and thickness of a pregnant uterus?
What are Braxton Hicks contractions?
Sporadic and nonrhythmic contractions beginning the 2nd trimester
How does the cervix change over the course of prgnancy
Increased glandular activity/mucus production
12 fold reduction in strength
Effects of pregnancy on the vulva/vagina?
What is leucorrhea?
A thick white/yellow vaginal discharge
Changes in skin during pregnancy?
What is chloasma?
Effect of pregnancy on blood levels
Blood volume increases 40-45%
35% increase in RBC
Causes slight dilutional anemia
Pregnancy requirement of iron?
Describe clotting changes seen in pregnant women?
Increase concentration of all clotting factors (Except XI and XIII)
Why do you give oxytocin after delivery?
Contraction of the uterus is very important for controlling blood loss
Effects of Pregnancy on the heart.
HR increases by 10 bpm
In. SV and CO
Dec. systemic resistance
Possible systolic flow murmur
Role of Renin/Angiotensin in pregnancy
Normally -- Resistant to Ang II
Preeclampsia -- Inc. sensitivity to Ang II
Changes in BP in a normal pregnancy?
Drops in 2nd, Rises in 3rd trimester
Why do pregnant women have a lover arterial oxygen content? Response in mother?
Decrease in Hgb
Tidal volume and minute ventilation volume increase (due to progestin activity)
In pregnancy, effects on RPF? GFR?
Causes of hydroureter/hydronephrosis in pregnancy?
Effects of progesterone
Three GI effects of pregnancy
Gastric Emptying time increases from progesterone
Effects of preganncy on thyroid?
Inc Throxine-binding globulin
Relative Iodide Deficiency
What is Colostrum?
More minerals and protein, but less sugar and fat
Persists abotu 5 days
Describe breast milk
Full o' Lactose, Proteins, IgA, Vitamins except K
About how much breast milk down a mother make in a day
What is breat milk typically deficient in?
Iron, supplementation is recomended for baby
Why do moms start releaseing their milk after delivery?
Big drop in progesterone
Removes Inhibition on alpha-lactoalbumin production
Influence of suckling on prolactin release?
Decreases release of prolactin-inhibiting factor from hypothalamus
Prolactin sustains production of...
Casein and other milk constituents