Lecture 6: Ultimate Consequences 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6: Ultimate Consequences 1 Deck (11):
1

Define the 'life history strategy' of a species.

Overall pattern in average timing and nature of life history events determined by allocation of time and energy between growth, reproduction, and survival.

2

What are the assumptions of life histories?

● There is some measure of fitness that is maximised.
● Constraints and trade-offs limit the set of possible
life-histories.
● There is sufficient genetic variation to permit the
attainment of the optimal combination.

3

Define 'trade offs'.

The linkage between traits that
constrain the simultaneous evolution of two or
more traits.

4

What are the main trade offs?

● Current reproduction vs survival
● Current reproduction vs future reproduction
● Growth versus reproduction.

5

What are the different types of trade offs?

● Physiological trade-offs
● Microevolutionary trade-offs
● Macroevolutionary trade-offs.

6

Define 'physiological trade offs'.

Allocation decisions between two or more
processes that compete directly for limited
resources.

7

Define 'microevolutionary trade offs'.

● Defined by the response of population to selection
● Existence of genetic correlation between the traits
● This include most physiological trade-offs.

8

Define 'macroevolutionary trade offs'.

Comparative analysis of variation in traits among
independent phylogenetic events.

9

How can you measure trade offs?

– Phenotypic correlations
– Experimental manipulations
– Genetic correlations from related individuals
– Correlations across phylogenetically related species.

10

Why are trade offs not found?

– Phylogenetic fixation
– Income vs capital breeders
– Variation in acquisition and allocation of energy
– Genotype by environment interactions.

11

What is 'Lack's hypothesis'?

The natural selection will favour the clutch size which produced most surviving offspring.