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why is patch shape important? 

Essentially patch shape can influence species composition and structure 


define contrast: 

is the degree of difference and or the abruptness of the transition between a patch and the adjacent landscape elements


in 2 studies they found that deer mouse really liked edge habitat, but in another they found they liked interior, what does this tell you? 

context really does matter!


species that increase/decrease in abundance with patch size or are found in large/small patches are available are....

area-sensitive species


what is the shannows diversity index? 


probability of barriers present within patch

circle is less probability and oval is more 


define patch edge: 

is the band aound a patch that is environmentally different from the interior, giving rish to a different spcies compliement and abundance in the interior 


based on studies of the SLOSS debate what is the general conclusion? 

habitat fragmentation may not matter to species diversity.... and this is stupid thing to argue about holy shit. Also many studies were just comparing oen species and not a community, 

environmental dynamics and spatial dispersal must be considered.

several small may be optimal for long term species only if the species range increases with the number of patches. 


patch size tends to be positively correlated with ----------

species richness and diversity


probability it is functionng as a corridor for species movement

circle is less and oval is more


patch size can infuence other components of the ecosystem:

1. quality of remnant patches 2. nutrient cycling 3. interactions between predators and prey


explain island biogeography theory: 

species diversity increase with area due to haitat diversity, however distance from mainand is a negative thing with diversity. But we will see increase as the island ages. 


why choose a single large reserve?

preserves intact communities

Better able to maintain viable populations that occur at low population densities such as large vertebrates


why is orientation important for dispersal of organisms and energy across the landscape? 

if there is a direction for downslope there may by inhibition of erosion water and nutrient runoff and there also may be factors with prevailing winds. 


effect immigration rate to the patch, 


why several small? 

size such as "what is large" is species dependent and it spreads the risk of catastrophic disturbance


define context: 

 the adjacent landscape elements in contact with a patch at a local scale. 


calculate shannons equitability for each area. 


what are the 4 differences in island patches and landscapes islands or patches? 

1. islands tend to be more or less permanenet; landscape patches have high turnover rates 

2. shrpness of edges on landscape patch is variable; edges may be more conducive to movement of spcies between the matrix and patches. 

3. matrix usually has high heterogenity on landscapes. Potentially many and diverse colonizing species in the matrix. 

4. Isolation is less in landscapes


species diversity?

more in circle and less in oval


calculate shannos diversity index? 


what was the general results from arthropods in savannah patches study? 

1. species richness was greater in rectangles 

2. evennes was lower in connected patches

3. beta diversity was higher in rectangles, 


what are 3 design principles using IBG as a template? 

1. larger better than smaller 

2. if only several small reserve available they should be as close as possible 

3. if reserve are isolated connecting with corridors can improve their conservation


what is the SLOSS debate? 

single large reserve or several small reserves? (same area) 


calculate diversity and eveness for the different habitat types 

actually do it, i don't know the answers yet


what can IBG be applied to? 

design of natural reserves


what is shannons equitability (evenness)? 


what is the habitat richness? 



species that do not respond to patch size are....

area-independent species


predation on dickcissel and eastern meadowlark ----------- as patch size increases



alien plants tend to be found in interoir or on edges of patches?