Lecture 7: The Vertebrate Body Plan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: The Vertebrate Body Plan Deck (19):

Explain the following features of vertebrate body plan: symmetry, triploblastic development and a coelom

1. Symmetry: the entire structure of an animal, it's organ systems, and the integrated functioning of its parts are known as
Its body plan. A fundamental aspect is symmetry
2. Triploblastic: process by which layers of tissue (germ layers) form in the blastocyst. The close relationship of these layers allows exchange of signals (eg growth factors) among tissues that trigger cell differentiation and organ formation. During gastrulation , the body forms 3 germ layers (triploblastic)
3. Coelom: animals having coelom (body cavity) form to major lines: protosomes and dueterostomes, the difference come about by how the gi tract forms within the embryo


Basic vertebrate body plan for vertebrates. Ie what do they all share in common?

1. Dueterostomes coelomates
2. Have bilateral symmetry
3. Tube-within-a-tube body plan
4. 3 well developed germ layers
5. Endoskeleton with closed circulatory system and ventral heart


What is derived from the ectoderm embryonic layer?

-epidermis of skin and it's derivatives (including sweat glands, hair follicles)
-epithelial lining of mouth and rectum
-sense receptors in epidermis
-cornea and lense of eye
-nervous system
-adrenal medulla
-tooth enamel
-epithelium of pineal and pituitary glands


What is derived from the mesoderm embryonic layer?

-skeletal system
-muscular system
-muscle layer of stomach, intestine, etc
-circulatory and lymphatic systems
-reproductive system
-dermis of skin
-lining of body cavity
-adrenal cortex


What is derived from the endoderm embryonic layer?

-epithelial lining of digestive tract
-epithelial lining if respiratory system
-lining of urethra, urinary bladder, and reproductive system
-thyroid and parathyroid glands


What are the 10 major organ systems in a vertebrate
I c men rrugi

1. Integumentary
2. Musculoskeletal
3. Endocrine
4. Nervous system
5. Immune
6. Cardiovascular
7. Respiratory
8. Urinary
9. Gastrointestinal
10. Reproduction


Integumentary system: functions, example
Skin = epidermis + dermis

-forms external body covering
-protects deeper tissues from external environment ie injury
-synthesizes vitamin D
-site of cutaneous receptors (pain)
-location of sweat and oil glands


Musculoskeletal system: function

-protects and supports organs
-provides framework that muscles use to cause movement
-blood cells formed within bones
-mineral storage
-aids cardiovascular and lymphatic system
-produces heat


Endocrine system: function

-endocrine gland manufacture and secrete hormones into blood stream eg adrenal glands, pituitary glands, gonads
-hormones regulate virtually all body processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells


Nervous system: function

-brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
-fast acting control system of body
-responds to initial and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
-coordination of body function via electrical signals and regulatory messengers
-every system is under nervous control
-contributes to total heat generation


Immune system: function

-system positioned to intercept material that enters through exchange surfaces eg gut and lungs
-thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, specialized cells
-disposes of debris into lymphatic system
-houses white blood cells
-mounting of immune response
-protects us against infections ie viruses, bacteria, parasites
-ensures normal physiological function of other systems
-lymphatic system: picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, returns to cardiovascular system


Cardiovascular system: function

-transports gases, nutrients, wastes to and from cells


Respiratory system:

-lungs, airways
-keeps blood constantly supplied with atmospheric o2 and removes co2 via venous system
-gaseous exchange occurs through walls of the air sacs of the lungs


Urinary system:

-kidneys, bladder, ducts
-eliminates nitrogenous wastes from body eg urea
-regulates h2o, electrolyte and acid balance of blood


Gastrointestinal system

-mechanical and chemical digestion
-absorbs nutrients
-stomach, intestines etc
-an extension of the external environment
-breaks ingested food down (via digestion) into absorbable units
-eliminates via faeces


Reproduction system

-function: production of offspring and perpetuation of species


What is physiology?
What is anatomy?

The study of the normal functioning of a living organism and it's component parts, including all physical and chemical processes is called physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure with minimum emphasis on function


Why can't physiology and anatomy be separated truly?

Because the function of a tissue or organ is closely tied to its structure; and the structure of an organism has evolved to provide for its function


What are the 4 systems that exchange material between the internal and external environments

-respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, reproductive
-major organs of these systems are hollow and lined with epithelium
-interior spaces (lumens) are essentially extensions of external environment
-material entering a lumen is not part of internal environment untill it is absorbed