Lecture 7: War Making, State Making Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: War Making, State Making Deck (12):

Tilly's claims for the function of war

War = state formation in Europe as unintended consequence of such


2 types of typical states with examples & 2 diff. relationships to war

1. Pre-modern empire; pre-industrial, agrarian empires.

EXAMPLE: China, 16th-19thc, some conflict but fundamentally peaceful.

2. European system of states after fall of Roman Empire in 476 CE

EXAMPLE: EUrope, 15thc - 20th c; in 75% of years, war did occur.


Fundamental difference between 2 great empires: Rome and China

Rome collapsed; competing state system replaces empire.

China reconstituted after every breakdown; stays together.


Empire Definition

- 3 ring of integration
- features
- Gellner's diagram on people in empires

- large pcs of territory + centralized + limited capacity to penetrate society

- small economic power; political power surrounding; military power enveloping all

- Diagram --> few upper strata with common characteristics, incl. strata of military, admin, commercial ruling class, etc. + laterally insulated communities of agricultural producers.
- state penetration of former group into latter = limited.


Chinese Empire vs Western Empire - State and Doctrine/Ideology

China --> -
- Confucianism/religion of state as doctrine; order/obedience as vital.
Big empire, but had smaller power; cycle of strength, collapse, rebuild, repeat.
Sustained peace --> relative success.

Rome/Western history -->
- Saint Augustine quote; city of God. Christian persecution in Rome for 200 yrs before it became state religion.
- Break of ideological + political power in West
- example; Charlemagne wanted pope to live with him, rejection.


Europe state system after fall of Rome
- results

Results -->

- multipolar system
- sep. of ideology & state --> state fragmentation, competition


Implications of European States system for Tilly

Interstate competition --> change, rationalize or you risk extinction.

Due to competition --> state imitation + new military technique adopted. Decentralization (ex. control of gunpowder in China/Europe) + bureaucracy/organization for taxation (war is costly)


Tilly's argument essentially
- statemaking

statemaking = unintended consequence of war
- ruler's desire to monopolize means of violence
- capacity to extract, repress = military, financial, admin structures (ie. a state)


Central Process #1

Competition to centralize control

i. to consolidate power, rulers disarmed rivals/society + defeat pacify rivals

ii. concentration of means of violence at central level

iii. concentration of financial resources


Central Process #2

administrative structure.

Power holders duties:
i) state apparatus
ii) manage taxation
iii) pay for, manage arms & soldiers
iv) increase state intrusiveness for tax

- held onto power even during peacetime.


Central Process #3

Bargaining with civilians --> Civilianization; produces central paradox of European state formation.

fighting for country + paying taxes --> civilians get claim to state.


Does argument still hold/modern circumstances?

Tilly --> it's contextual.

- no civilianizing process in other contexts like developing world.
- resources + legitimacy largely coming from outside rather than within.
- dependency theory stuff.