Flashcards in Lecture 7: War Making, State Making Deck (12):
Tilly's claims for the function of war
War = state formation in Europe as unintended consequence of such
2 types of typical states with examples & 2 diff. relationships to war
1. Pre-modern empire; pre-industrial, agrarian empires.
EXAMPLE: China, 16th-19thc, some conflict but fundamentally peaceful.
2. European system of states after fall of Roman Empire in 476 CE
EXAMPLE: EUrope, 15thc - 20th c; in 75% of years, war did occur.
Fundamental difference between 2 great empires: Rome and China
Rome collapsed; competing state system replaces empire.
China reconstituted after every breakdown; stays together.
- 3 ring of integration
- Gellner's diagram on people in empires
- large pcs of territory + centralized + limited capacity to penetrate society
- small economic power; political power surrounding; military power enveloping all
- Diagram --> few upper strata with common characteristics, incl. strata of military, admin, commercial ruling class, etc. + laterally insulated communities of agricultural producers.
- state penetration of former group into latter = limited.
Chinese Empire vs Western Empire - State and Doctrine/Ideology
China --> -
- Confucianism/religion of state as doctrine; order/obedience as vital.
Big empire, but had smaller power; cycle of strength, collapse, rebuild, repeat.
Sustained peace --> relative success.
Rome/Western history -->
- Saint Augustine quote; city of God. Christian persecution in Rome for 200 yrs before it became state religion.
- Break of ideological + political power in West
- example; Charlemagne wanted pope to live with him, rejection.
Europe state system after fall of Rome
- multipolar system
- sep. of ideology & state --> state fragmentation, competition
Implications of European States system for Tilly
Interstate competition --> change, rationalize or you risk extinction.
Due to competition --> state imitation + new military technique adopted. Decentralization (ex. control of gunpowder in China/Europe) + bureaucracy/organization for taxation (war is costly)
Tilly's argument essentially
statemaking = unintended consequence of war
- ruler's desire to monopolize means of violence
- capacity to extract, repress = military, financial, admin structures (ie. a state)
Central Process #1
Competition to centralize control
i. to consolidate power, rulers disarmed rivals/society + defeat pacify rivals
ii. concentration of means of violence at central level
iii. concentration of financial resources
Central Process #2
Power holders duties:
i) state apparatus
ii) manage taxation
iii) pay for, manage arms & soldiers
iv) increase state intrusiveness for tax
- held onto power even during peacetime.
Central Process #3
Bargaining with civilians --> Civilianization; produces central paradox of European state formation.
fighting for country + paying taxes --> civilians get claim to state.