lecture 8.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lecture 8.1 Deck (24):
1

Stalin and the Home Front

during the Great Depression people were attracted to other forms of economics; some became communists because they saw that it was the only force that could stand to Hitler

2

Popular Front

constructions of communist parties around the world influenced by Stalin to come together in order to gain power; only lasted for two years

3

Hollywood Guilds and Unions

guilds represented above the line people; unions represented below the line people

4

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

conducted lightweight but predictive investigations of Hollywood communism

5

Anti-Interventionist Hearings

WWII begins in 1939 but US is neutral; Roosevelt was pro-British and anti-Nazi at the time; but strong forces sympathize with Nazis over British; people who supported Roosevelt were called interventionists; accusations that Hollywood was too pro-British and that Roosevelt was pushing audience towards them started these hearings; dropped after Pearl Harbor

6

The Mob & IATSE

Al Capone and his mob began to gain control of IATSE; by late 30s, Chicago mob had complete control of IATSE and had their people in prominent positions; if you didn't want any strikes or wage demands they would help you in exchange for a fee

7

Roy Brewer & IATSE

exposed mob and IATSE, cleaned up IATSE and unions, anti-corruption campaign led under Roy Brewer, he was strongly anti-mob and anti-communist

8

Herbert Sorrell & the Conference of Studio Unions

close to Hollywood communists

9

1947 HUAC Investigation into Communism in Hollywood

began conducting investigations of Hollywood communist parties; many headlines about Hollywood being communist; 41 witnesses were voluntarily interviewed and became known as the friendly witnesses, gave up left-wing friends; John Howard Lawson (head of Communist Party USA) and 9 other witnesses accused refused to testify and became known as the unfriendly witnesses or the Hollywood Ten; these witnesses never admitted to communist beliefs

10

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals

created by high profile, politically conservative members of Hollywood film industry; against radicals and later purely against communists

11

Committee for the First Amendment

group formed by supporters of the Hollywood Ten; claimed the hearing violated the first amendment; wanted to protect free speech in Hollywood; ended up feeling like they couldn't do anything to protect the Hollywood Ten

12

The Blacklist

organized by moguls after the HUAC hearings; list of people though to be communist or fascist in Hollywood including the Hollywood Ten; were denied employment in the industry; had to use pseudo names or leave the country

13

1951 HUAC Hearings

China becomes communist; Korean War begins; witnesses began naming names; evidence of HUAC getting witnesses to name name in order to add them to the blacklist because they were now part of public record; only one noted blacklisted person was ever hired again (Dalton Trumbo was hired by Otto Preminger)

14

1948 Paramount Consent Decree

landmark United States Supreme Court antitrust case; trust-busting attorney Thurman Arnold went after 8 monopolistic businesses including the film business; Big Five and Little Three were sued and the issue stayed in the courts until the consent decree; tried to negotiate by reducing block booking and block booking in groups of 5 to make it easier for independent companies but it didn't work; Supreme Court decides against Hollywood and says its not truly competitive

15

Studios Consent and Break Up

Paramount and RKO first, Warner Bros, Fox, finally MGM; Department of Justice settled for nothing less than a complete change; had to break up production/distribution and exhibition; no more block booking; films distributed and rented to theaters on an individual basis

16

Impact of the Divestiture

theater chains now separate entities, decrease in productions-released 50 before, but quantity slips down to 19-25 and that's true today, decline of long term contracts, reduce overhead, studio lots rented-Hollywood studios no longer needed all these studios and personal

17

Independent Production

independents learn how to turn themselves into businesses; capital gains tax is lower than income; develop projects; have more control over artistic aspects and career; start out as just paper companies but eventually grow larger; actors can become mini studios and hire their own writers

18

MCA & Lew Wasserman

Jules Stein founded MCA; Lew Wasserman took over after he stepped down; became biggest talent at the largest talent agency

19

Points of Gross

Jimmy Stewart was the first actor to earn points of gross; actors turned themselves into a corporation and their corporation received part of film's revenue; you know you've made it big when you earn points of gross

20

Packaging

talent agencies find scripts, directors, and actors; pitch fully drawn products to production companies; ask them to produce or fund it; more power given to talent agencies

21

Revue

MCA's television production subsidiary; before 1950 SAG said talent agencies couldn't own production studios; after Reagan became president of SAG he granted MCA the right to create one; became the top supplier of television for all networks

22

Universal & MCA

MCA merged with Decca Records which also owned 89% of Universal Pictures; in order to acquire Universal as well, MCA had to break up in to 12+ smaller agencies

23

UA and Arthur Krim & Robert Benjamin

bought UA from Chaplin and Pickford; came from law and banking background; created the first studio without an actual studio; offered money to independent producers and took care of exhibition; UA did not over overhead expenses like other studio; redefined production financing and distribution

24

Film Noir

hard boiled detective fiction; German expressionism; femme fatale; no longer All-American stuff; could be affects of the war