Lecture 9: Physical and Mental Health Flashcards Preview

🚫 PSY321H1F: Cross-Cultural Psychology with A. Sharples > Lecture 9: Physical and Mental Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 9: Physical and Mental Health Deck (22):

SES and health outcomes [10]

  • British civil servants study; how can we explain this?
  • More money means more access to good medical care?
    • But Britain has universal healthcare, so this should be equal
  • Lower SES people in jobs that are more hazardous?
    • But even in the same job → still showed SES health pattern
  • Lower SES → cultural contexts more encouraging of unhealthy habits?
    • But even when different levels of unhealthy behaviours are controlled for, there’s still a clear relationship
  • Best explanation: lower SES people experience greater stress
    • They're more vigilant to threat b/c they’re experiencing more threats on a day-to-day basis
    • → b/c of a lack of control over what they’re doing (lower in status hierarchy, being told what to do)


acute stress [3]

  • Short term stress most people experience every day
  • Necessary + adaptive for us to survive
  • Not related to negative health outcomes, it’s about how you recover


chronic stress [1]

  • Stress that is constant and persists over time + related to negative health outcomes


objective vs. subjective SES [2]

  • relative deprivation: Knowing that others around you are doing better than you + perceiving deficiency in relation to these people
  • More egalitarian societies = lower relation between health and social class


Curhan et al. (a) [9]

(hint: relative deprivation + health)

  • Differences in objective vs. subjective perceptions of wealth + impacts on wellbeing in USA vs. Japan
  • Hypothesis: individualist cultures → subjective feelings more important b/c your self-focussed perceptions are more important
    • Collectivist cultures → objective feelings more important b/c that’s what people can see
  • Objective social status: education attainment level
  • Subjective social status: community ladder → “At the bottom are the people who have the lowest standing in their community. Where would you place yourself on this ladder?”
  • Well-being: 8 scales of well-being
  • Results: subjective perceptions are more important for both cultures
    • But subjective more important for USA
    • And objective still more important to Japanese


negative affect [3]

  • Differences in the way negative affect is viewed across cultures
  • Western cultures: negative emotions construed as internal entities and are the individuals responsibility
  • Eastern cultures: negative emotions construed as situational and grounded in specific relationships


Curhan et al. (b) [7]

(hint: negative affect + wellbeing)

  • How does negative affect affect wellbeing in USA vs. Japan?
  • How often they had experienced negative emotions over the previous 30 days
  • Physical health: number of chronic conditions, degree of functional limitations, and subjective global health
  • Mental health: psychological well-being, self-esteem, and life satisfaction
  • Negative affect (+)corr. w/ chronic conditions + physical functioning for both cultures
    • Negatively correlated w/ global health + all mental health measures
  • Correlations were stronger for USA participants + significantly stronger for chronic conditions, physical functioning, psychological wellbeing, self-esteem


Kitayama et al. (2010) [15]

(hint: culturally-sanctioned goals)

  • How important is achieving culturally-sanctioned goals for your wellbeing?
  • Goals stem from culturally prevalent ideas and practices
    • Western cultures emphasize importance of personal control
    • Eastern cultures emphasize importance of relational harmony
  • Measured: independence (e.g. personal mastery) + interdependence (e.g. relational harmony with family members)
    • Chronic constraint: “cannot do what I want to do”
    • Well-being and health
  • Japanese Ps experienced more perceived restraint overall, perhaps b/c living in collectivist society prevents you from achieving your goals (insofar as they’re self-focussed)
    • Higher personal control → lower perceived constraint
  • Personal control (+)corr. w/ wellbeing for both
    • More significant predictor among Americans vs. Japanese
    • Control + sense of self as efficacious → central to independence that’s emphasized + privileged in NA
  • Relational harmony also (+)corr. w/ wellbeing for both
    • But relation much stronger for Japanese Ps
    • Responsiveness to others + attendant social harmony → valued in Japan


mental health + culture [7]

  • Our environment plays an important role in the development of mental health issues

Culture determines:

  • types of physical and social stressors
  • types of coping mechanisms and resources to mediate stressors
  • basic personality patterns (self-structure, motivation systems)
  • language systems that organize perceptions + responses to reality → mental health treatments
  • standards of normalcy, deviance, health
  • classification patterns for various diseases and disorders


biopsychosocial model [1]

A image thumb

Dr. Jessica Dere on culture + mental health (TEDxUTSC) [1]

  • Need to consider cultural factors when defining mental illness, since they’re patterns of behaviour that deviate from cultural norms


eating disorders [4]

  • anorexia nervosa: (Western societies) Refusing to maintain a normal body weight, be intensely fearful of gaining weight/becoming fat, deny the seriousness of one’s low body weight
  • bulimia nervosa: Recurrent episodes of binge eating + induced vomiting, inappropriate behaviours to prevent weight gain
  • As images of thinner women being more attractive increase
  • In other parts of the world; more Western exposure → higher rates


hikikomori​ [2]

  • (Japan) Social withdraw, affected people may appear unhappy, start to lose friends, become insecure and shy
  • Not being afraid to go outside, just need to get away from society


amok [4]

  • (Malaysia + Southeast Asia) An acute outburst of unrestrained violence, associated w/ (indiscriminate) homicidal attacks, preceded by a period of brooding + ending with exhaustion+amnesia
  • Particularly among males, caused by stress, lack of sleep, alcohol
  • Maybe related to passive cultures where people don’t have an outlet for their frustrations + tensions
  • Maybe seen in Western countries; killings tend to be more premeditated → questionable if it’s the same psychological disorder underlying it


kufungisisa [1]

  • (Zimbabwe) anxiety + somatic problems stemming from mental exhaustion


depression [4]

  • Not all depressed individuals show the same symptoms
  • somatization: Experiencing symptoms primarily in bodies (Eastern)
    • Correlated with extent of individual’s held collectivist beliefs and beliefs that these are normative, not perceptions of stigma
  • psychologization: Experiencing symptoms primarily in minds (Western)


social anxiety disorder [2]

  • Fear that one’s in danger of acting in an inept/unacceptable manner → disastrous social consequences
  • East Asians more likely to report symptoms of social anxiety disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed w/ them


taijin kyoufushou (TKS) [2]

  • Phobia of confronting others; similar to SAD, but along with physical symptoms (e.g. extensive blushing, heightened body odor, sweating, a penetrating gaze)
  • Not only preoccupied with these symptoms but also a certainty that these symptoms will offend + create unease in others


schizophrenia [4]

  • Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized/catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms
  • Even with obviously biologically-based condition, there are still striking cultural differences in the experience, course, + outcome:
    • Paranoid schizophrenia more prevalent in UK
    • Catatonic schizophrenia more prevalent in India


Western mental health treatment [1]

  • Psychotherapy treatments are often used in West, but may not be as useful in societies less likely to verbally disclose to strangers + acknowledging mental health is stigmatized


social support [3]

  • Receiving sufficient social support plays key role in coping w/ psychological distress + various physical health benefits both within + across cultures
  • indigenous psychotherapies: Emphasize relationship between client, therapist, + society
  • morita therapy: Goal isn’t to change client’s symptoms, but to change their perspective on the symptoms


cultural competence [4]

  • Recommends that therapists should:
  • 1) Recognize their own cultural influences so they can consciously deal with their own defenses, interpretations, projections
  • 2) Develop knowledge about cultural background of their client
  • 3) Develop appropriate skills to intervene in therapy sessions in a way that’s culturally sensitive + relevant