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What is the internet?

- The internet is the most used network in the world.
- It is a network of networks
- Has strict rules for data exchange
- Unrestricted applications and content


Describe the structure of the internet

- Tier 1 - National Internet Service Provider - Peers with other tier 1 ISPs
- Tier 2 - Regional Internet Service Provider - Peers with other tier 2 ISPs
- Tier 3 - Local Internet Service Provider - Doesn't peer with other ISPs
- The end consumer
* each sells to the one below it


Describe peering and transit

Peering: When a tier 1 ISP does not charge another tier 1 ISP to transmit messages
Transit: charge lower level tiers to transfer data


Describe private vs. public peering points

Private peering points: dedicated connection between two ISPs
Public peering points: shared resource used to interconnect several ISPs


List the thee types of peering points.

- Network Access Points (NAP) - Old name for original public transitional data communications facilities
- Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAE) - Old name for peering point
- Internet Exchange Point (IEP) - New Name for public peering point


Draw the Hierarchical Topology of the internet.

Slide 21 of diagram slides.


List 3 ways of connecting to an ISP.

1. ISP Point of Presence (PoP)
2. DSL or Cable Modem (Individual users)
3. T-1 or Metro Ethernet (Businesses)


Draw the diagram of inside an ISP point of preference.

Slide 22 of infrastructure slides.


Name 4 ways to connect to the internet.

1. Dial-up
2. Wired consumer (DSL or Cable Modem)
3. Wireless Consumer (WiMax)
4. Corporate wired Internet Leased Line (Metro Ethernet r T-1)


What is DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)?

- Provides high speed data transmission over traditional telephone lines.
- Newer deployments also over fiber-optic cable.
- Constrained distances - typically less than 2 KM


Name and describe 5 types of DSL.

1. Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) - Downlink speed higher than uplink speed, 3 FDM channels, Shorter distance gives higher bandwidth
2. Very High Bit Rate DSL (VDSL and VDSL2) - Downlink speed higher (typically) than uplink speed, deployed over existing copper twisted pair or fiber-optic cable, Shorter distance gives higher bandwidth
3. Cable Modem - Service based on Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) standard, Data throughput rates typically higher than DSL
4. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) - “Last mile” broadband wireless access alternative to DSL, cable modem, and T-1 service, Long range high data rate service
5. Long Term Evolution (LTE) - the latest standard for broadband wireless access


Draw the Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) access technology.

Slide 16 of diagram slides.


Draw the VDSL with Hybrid Cabling (FTTN/FTTC) access technology.

Slide 18 of diagram slides.


Draw the VDSL with FTTH (PON) access technology.

Slide 19 of diagram slides.


Draw the Cable Modem with Hybrid Cabling (HFC) access technology.

Slide 21 of diagram slides.


Draw the WiMax access technology.

Slide 23 of diagram slides.


Draw the LTE access technology.

Slide 25 and 26 of diagram slides.


How is the internet governed?

- No single organization operates the Internet
- Closest thing to owner is Internet Society (ISOC)


What standards bodies exist to create standards for the internets?

1. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
2. Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
3. Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
4. Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)


What is the CANARIE backbone?

Designs and drives the adoption of digital infrastructure for Canada’s R&E community