Lecture Exam 3 - Muscular System Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 3 - Muscular System Study Guide Deck (101)
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1

Define term: Energy

Capacity to do work

2

Define Term: Potential Energy

Energy stored by matter due to its position

3

Define Term: Kinetic Energy

energy associated with matter in motion

4

Define Term: Chemical Energy

a form of potential energy stored in the bonds of compounds and molecules

5

Define Term: Exergonic Reaction

chemical reactions that release more energy than they absorb

6

Define Term: Endergonic Reaction

chemical reactions that absorb more energy than they release

7

Define Term: Cellular Respiration

the process by which glucose provides the energy to make ATP. Cellular repiration as two phases: anaerobic and aerobic. In the anaerobic phase, glucose is partially broken down into pyruvie aold by a series of reactions that do not require energy. In the aerobic phase, glucose is completely broken down to CO2 and H2O. Oxygen is required for this process.

8

Understand how different joints mimic different types of levers [NEED TO INCLUDE DIFFERENT LEVEL SLIDES]

Bnes at as levers, a ridgid structure that can move around a fixed point (the fulcrum). The joint functions as the fulcrum of the lever. Two forces come into play: 1) Effort which cases movement and 2) Load or resistance which opposes movement.

9

Understand how the muscle uses ATP to produce energy necessary for muscle contraction.

Muscle stores energy in ATP in mitochondria (in 3rd phosphate bond). Myosin head (myosin = thick filament) has an ATP-binding site and an ATPase (enzyme that converts ATP to ADP). Energy provided results in change of position of head (breaks the crossbridges) ATP is thus required for both formation of crossbridges and detachment of crossbridges.

10

Understand how energy obtained from glucose is stored in the covalent bonds of ATP ready for future use.

The process by which glucose provides the energy to make ATP is called cellular respiration. Cellular respiration has two phases: anaerobic and aerobic. In the Anaerobic phase, glucose is partially broken down into pyruvic acid by a series of reactions that do not require energy. In the aerobic phase, glucose is completely broken down to CO2 and H2O. Oxygen is required for this process.

11

How the distinguising histological features and functions of the three muscle types: Skeletal

-Long striated fibers -Peripheral Nuclei -Voluntary Control -Usually attached to bones via tendons -Important in motion, posture, heat production, and protection

12

How the distinguising histological features and functions of the three muscle types: Cardiac

-Branched, striated fibers -Involuntary Control -Centrally located nuclei -Pound in heart wall -Pumps blood to all parts of the body

13

How the distinguising histological features and functions of the three muscle types: Smooth

-Spindle-shaped, non-striated with centrally located nuclei -Involuntary Control -Walls of internal organs such as blood vessels, GI tract, airways to lungs. Gall bladder, urinary bladder, uterus. -Motion, e.g. contriction of blood vessels, movement of food through GI, contraction of bladder, uterus

14

Understand how muscle achieves each of the following functions: Producing body movement

relies on integrated functioning of bones, joints, muscles and nervous system. Muscle contractions on bones create movement.

15

Understand how muscle achieves each of the following functions: Stabilizing body positions

Skeletal muscles stabilize joints and help maintain body positions. Postural muscles contract continually when you are awake.

16

Understand how muscle achieves each of the following functions: Storing and moving substances within body

-Smooth muscle allows for continual contraction of ringlike bands of muscle (sphincters), e.g. storage of food in stomach - Contraction and relaxation of smooth muslce walls of blood vessels allows for storage of blood.

17

Understand how muscle achieves each of the following functions: Generating heat

As muscle contracts it generates heat in a process known as thermogenesis -- this heat is used to maintain normal body temperature. Involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle (shivering) can generate more heat.

18

What are the properties of musle tissue?

Excitability, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity

19

Define Term: Fascia

means a broad band of connective tissue that surrounds muscle or other organs

20

Define Term: Epimysium

Three distinct layers of connective tissue surround and protect skeletal muscle. The epimysium is the layer that encircles the entire muscle.

21

Define Term: Perimysium

Three distinct layers of connective tissue surround and protect skeletal muscle. The perimysium sorrounds groups of 10-100 or more muscle fibers. This separates them into bundles called fascicles.

22

Define Term: Endomysium

Three distinct layers of connective tissue surround and protect skeletal muscle. The Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers within fascicles.

23

Define Term: Fascicle

Bundles of approx 10-100 or more muscle fibers within a muscle, surrounded by the Perimysium. Some Fasicles large enough to be seen with the naked eye.

24

Define Term: Tendon

Epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium are continuous with the connective tissue that connects muscles to other organs. When they extend in long parallel bundles to attach a muscle to a bone, they are called a tendon.

25

Define Term: Aponeurosis

A tendon that extends in a broad flat layer. E.g. how the occipitofrontalis muscles attach to the skull.

26

Define Term: Muscle fiber

Muscle cells are called muscle fibers. Mutlinucleat and formed from many myoblasts.

27

Define Term: Myoblast

Embryonic cells called myoblasts fuse to form muscle fibers.

28

Define Term: Satellite cell

some myoblast-derived cells called satelite cells remain in the adult, and can accomplish some muscle regeneration, though the number of muscle fibers in set before you are born.

29

Define Term: Sacolemma

the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber

30

Define Term: Transverse tubule

tiny structures of the sarcolemma (plasma membrane in muscle), which tunnel in from the surface toward the center of the cell