# Lectures 1-4 Flashcards

1

Q

Definition of EBM:

A

- medicine combining the best current research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.

2

Q

The five outcomes of disease:

A

- death
- disease
- discomfort
- disability
- dissatisfaction

3

Q

Prevalence =

A

**(total #sick)/(total population)**

- how many people are sick
- a single time point
- Prevalence can be used to estimate the likelihood of a diagnosis before any “tests”

4

Q

Cumulative incidence:

A

**(new cases)/(total population at risk at study start)**

- how many people are getting sick (NEW CASES)
- incidence is a rate, it happens over a time interval

5

Q

Incidence density =

A

- the incidence rate in a dynamic, changing population in which people are under study and at risk for varying periods of time.
- “person-years” or “person-days”

6

Q

Incidence equation in steady state:

A

**prevalence / duration**

7

Q

Duration equation in steady state:

A

**prevalence / incidence**

8

Q

Prevalence equation in steady state:

A

**(incidence) X (average duration)**

9

Q

Apparent incidence depends on:

A

- intensity of effort to identify cases, not just the true underlying incidence.

10

Q

Epidemic:

A

- an increase in incidence of a disease in a community or region.
- Outbreak is sometimes used to mean a small epidemic in a limited location.
- An epidemic curve is a plot of the distribution of cases over time.

11

Q

Pandemic:

A

- an epidemic that crosses many international boundaries.

12

Q

Endemic:

A

- the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group.

13

Q

Random samples:

A

- Every person has an equal probability of being sampled

14

Q

Probability sample:

A

- Every person has a known (but not necessarily equal) probability of being selected.
- Can weight the sample towards some low-frequency groups of interest.

15

Q

“grab” samples:

A

- convenient
- susceptible to bias

16

Q

alpha =

A

- the probability you’ll make a false hit.
- Arbitrarily, p = 0.05
- false hit = type 1 error
- 5% of the time, we’ll make an error