Flashcards in Lectures 13-16 Deck (84)
How did the jovian planets form?
1.frozen hydrogen compounds (ices) formed planetesimals= build up proto-planets
2.Massive planets gravitationally attract H and He gas
3.Solar nebula less dense further out= takes longer to accumulate mass
Describe Jupiter's internal structure.
core of rock, metals and hydrogen compounds
Does Jupiter emit more heat than it receives?
yes- also Saturn and Neptune
-probably due to continued contraction
Explain the red bands on Jupiter's surface.
red= lower altitude, warmer, emit more IR
white= higher altitude clouds, cooler, emit less IR
How does the atmosphere of Jupiter compare to the Earth's?
-similar regions: thermosphere, stratosphere, troposphere but no surface
-features persist longer as there is no friction
What is the Jupiter's Great Red Spot?
-giant storm, long lived, like a hurricane but high pressure
Can magnetic field tell us about the internal structure of a planet?
Why is Jupiter's magnetic field different?
-huge, interaction with IO that's basically in the magnetic field
What are the two categories of jovian moons?
1: formed in accretion disk around planet, larger, regular orbits, surfaces, lots of ice
2:captured- smaller, irregular shapes, little geological activity, irregular orbits
Is Io geologically active?
Yes, volcanoes, lot of activity due to tidal stress.
Why are the orbits of the Galilean moons elliptical?
because of their orbital resonances
Which place in the solar system is most likely to have life?
Describe the atmosphere of Titan.
Thick N2 atmosphere.
-CH4, C2H6 give greenhouse effect
-lakes of liquid methane and ethane
-similar geology to Earth
Do all jovian planets have rings?
How thick and how wide are Saturn's rings?
10 m thick
140 000 km wide
What causes the bands in the rings?
Bigger objects sweeping it gravitationally.
A very bright ring will be denser or less dense?
What are asteroids?
Rocky leftovers of planet formation.
-small more common than big ones
What is the name of the largest asteroid and how big is it?
1000km in diameter
Would all the asteroids in the solar system add up to a planet?
No, not even a terrestrial one.
What are the physical characteristics of asteroids?
Not round, cratered
Describe asteroid orbits.
Most asteroids in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
Trojan asteroids= follow Jupiter's orbit
How do we call asteroids that cross Earth's orbit?
near earth asteroids
How does Jupiter influence the asteroid belt?
Asteroids in orbital resonance with Jupiter experience periodic gravitational tugs.
=this creates gaps in the asteroid belt
-tidal forces from Jupiter prevented a planet forming
What is a meteorite?
A rock from space that falls through Earth's atmosphere.
What is a meteor?
The bright trail left by a meteorite.
Describe a comet.
-icy counterpart of an asteroid
-nucleus is a dirty snowball
-most comets remain in deep freeze in the outer solar system
-comets have a tail only when they get close to the Sun and start melting
What is a coma in a comet?
The atmosphere that comes from a comet's heated nucleus.
What is a plasma tail?
Gas escaping from coma, pushed by solar wind.