Flashcards in lectures 16&17 Deck (12):
vertebral column curvatures
-2 positive (posterior): thoracic and sacrum.coccyx
-2 negative (anterior): cervical and lumbar
--positive--bridges/arches, very strong
**we have more problems in our secondary negative curvatures (cervical and lumbar)
-scoliosis--LATERAL curvature of spine. Can displace pelvic or pectoral girdle
-kyphosis--Hunchback/widow's hump. compresses thorax, forces head forward. often with osteoporosis
-lordosis--swayback, accentuated lumbo-sacral curvature. more common in women
-stress fractures (trauma) and pathological fractures (from disease like osteoporosis)
-bone heals itself though remodeling as it is connective tissue
-as we age, it becomes more difficult to heal our bones. takes longer or isn't healed completely
-nondisplaced: aka hairline. bone stays in position and fracture does not extend fully across the bone
-displaced: bone completely fractured through. position of broken ends are displaced by muscle contraction. requires reduction.
-greenstick: bone bends before it breaks. occurs in children
-comminuted: multiple fractures producing fragments. from blunt trauma. requires surgery to reduce and remove isolated pieces and to replace lost matrix.
-any point where two bones meet.
-study of joints= arthrology
-synarthrosis--joint that is relatively inflexible, formed by a thick layer of fibrous connective tissue holding bones together
-amphiarthrosis--joint that is slightly flexible and formed by cartilage.
-diathrosis-- flexible joint, aka synovial joint b/c joint contains a synovial cavity btwn the opposing bones
joint structural classification
-fibrous joint: space btwn bones is narrow and filled by collagen fibers
-cartilaginous joint: space btwn bones is wider and filled with cartilage
-synovial joint: hyaline cartlage covers the articular bone surfaces and fluid filled cavity sits between them--synovial cavity.
(fibrous) synarthrotic joints
-sutures-form between the flat bones of cranium
-gomphosis-forms btwn tooth root and surrounding bone socket--some flexibility, why teeth can wiggle.
-syndesmosis-found in proximal ends of radius and ulna, and proximal end of tibia and fibula. flexibility depends on length of collagen fibers involved.
(fibrous) amphiarthrotic joints
-synchondrosis: bones bound by hyaline cartilage. immature epiphyseal discs and attachment of first rib to sternum
-symphysis: bones bound by fibrocartilage--pubic symphysis and invertebral discs
-ball and socket joint--360 degrees range of motion--head of humerus and femur
-saddle joint--moves in two planes at right angles, effectively 360 degrees. proximal head of first metacarpal (thumb) and sternoclavicular joint
-hinge joint--most common diarthrotic joint. one plane of movement; phalanges, knee, elbow
-condylar joint--moves in two planes at right angles. similar to ball and socket but more restricted. metacarpophalangeal (fingers) and radiocarpal (wrist) joint.
-planar joint--aka gliding joint. can move slightly in any direction; intercarpalar and intertarsalar and intervertebral facets
-pivot joints--bones rotate in place with respect to each other. radioulnar (most flexible), and atlantoaxial joint.
functional classification of diarthrotic joints
-nonaxial--allow free motion, but not around a central access. ex. planar joint
-uniaxial--allow motion around one axis. ex. hinge and pivot joint
-biaxial--around 2 axis. ex. saddle and condylar
-multiaxial--3 or more axis. ex. ball and socket
movements of diarthroses