lectures 16&17 Flashcards Preview

A&P Lecture > lectures 16&17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in lectures 16&17 Deck (12):

vertebral column curvatures

-2 positive (posterior): thoracic and sacrum.coccyx
-2 negative (anterior): cervical and lumbar

--positive--bridges/arches, very strong
--negative--very weak

**we have more problems in our secondary negative curvatures (cervical and lumbar)


abnormal curvatures

-scoliosis--LATERAL curvature of spine. Can displace pelvic or pectoral girdle
-kyphosis--Hunchback/widow's hump. compresses thorax, forces head forward. often with osteoporosis
-lordosis--swayback, accentuated lumbo-sacral curvature. more common in women



-stress fractures (trauma) and pathological fractures (from disease like osteoporosis)

-bone heals itself though remodeling as it is connective tissue

-as we age, it becomes more difficult to heal our bones. takes longer or isn't healed completely


fracture types

-nondisplaced: aka hairline. bone stays in position and fracture does not extend fully across the bone

-displaced: bone completely fractured through. position of broken ends are displaced by muscle contraction. requires reduction.

-greenstick: bone bends before it breaks. occurs in children

-comminuted: multiple fractures producing fragments. from blunt trauma. requires surgery to reduce and remove isolated pieces and to replace lost matrix.


Joints (arthroses)

-any point where two bones meet.
-study of joints= arthrology

-synarthrosis--joint that is relatively inflexible, formed by a thick layer of fibrous connective tissue holding bones together

-amphiarthrosis--joint that is slightly flexible and formed by cartilage.

-diathrosis-- flexible joint, aka synovial joint b/c joint contains a synovial cavity btwn the opposing bones


joint structural classification

-fibrous joint: space btwn bones is narrow and filled by collagen fibers

-cartilaginous joint: space btwn bones is wider and filled with cartilage

-synovial joint: hyaline cartlage covers the articular bone surfaces and fluid filled cavity sits between them--synovial cavity.


(fibrous) synarthrotic joints

-sutures-form between the flat bones of cranium

-gomphosis-forms btwn tooth root and surrounding bone socket--some flexibility, why teeth can wiggle.

-syndesmosis-found in proximal ends of radius and ulna, and proximal end of tibia and fibula. flexibility depends on length of collagen fibers involved.


(fibrous) amphiarthrotic joints

-synchondrosis: bones bound by hyaline cartilage. immature epiphyseal discs and attachment of first rib to sternum

-symphysis: bones bound by fibrocartilage--pubic symphysis and invertebral discs


diarthrotic joints

-ball and socket joint--360 degrees range of motion--head of humerus and femur

-saddle joint--moves in two planes at right angles, effectively 360 degrees. proximal head of first metacarpal (thumb) and sternoclavicular joint

-hinge joint--most common diarthrotic joint. one plane of movement; phalanges, knee, elbow

-condylar joint--moves in two planes at right angles. similar to ball and socket but more restricted. metacarpophalangeal (fingers) and radiocarpal (wrist) joint.

-planar joint--aka gliding joint. can move slightly in any direction; intercarpalar and intertarsalar and intervertebral facets

-pivot joints--bones rotate in place with respect to each other. radioulnar (most flexible), and atlantoaxial joint.


functional classification of diarthrotic joints

-nonaxial--allow free motion, but not around a central access. ex. planar joint

-uniaxial--allow motion around one axis. ex. hinge and pivot joint

-biaxial--around 2 axis. ex. saddle and condylar

-multiaxial--3 or more axis. ex. ball and socket


movements of diarthroses



joint pathology

-osteoarthritis: inflammation and eventual calcification and/or fusion of a diarthrotic joint from WEAR and TEAR

- Rheumatoid arthritis: inflammation of soft tissue of joint, swelling and partially immobilizing it. chronic, progressive. results in ankylosis (extreme stiffening) of joint.

-bursitis: inflam. of the bursa

-sprain: rupturing of ligament or tendon or both around joint w/o fracture