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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Chemistry Deck (18):

atoms' 3 subatomic particles

protons--atomic mass of 1
charge: positive
electrons--atomic mass of 0
charge: negative
neutrons--atomic mass of 1
charge: neutral


the octet rule

-atoms like to have filled outer valence levels
-they are willing to gain or lose electrons in order to achieve this
-once they do this, they no longer are stable, neutral elements, but rather, charged ions
-negative charge (gain e-)=anion
-positive charge (lose e-)=cation


ionic bonding:
oxidation v. reduction

-when electrons are transferred btwn 2 or more atoms
-when an atom loses an e- it becomes positive so it is OXIDIZED
-when an atom gains an e- it becomes negative so it is REDUCED.
-redox bonds--coupled rxns--> if something is oxidized, something else is reduced


major elements
(four most common in body)



mineral elements
(7 smaller elements of the body

Magnesium Mg
Sulfur S
Phosphorus P
Potassium K
Sodium Na
Calcium Ca
Chlorine Cl
*pneumonic--Make sure pretty people stop catching cholera


types of bonds`

1. ionic
2. non-polar covalent
3. polar covalent
4. hydrogen bonds


Ionic bonds

-complete transfer of electrons
-separate ions (charged particles) form
-less stable bonds--common for them to dissolve in water (a great solvent)
ex. Na and Cl
not very stable alone--don't have full outer e level
but with an ionic bond, their levels become full and they become very stable ions
Na+ Cl- = table salt!


non-polar covalent bonds

-EQUAL sharing of electrons--> atoms give the same number they receive
-always share in pairs/multiples of 2.
-no +/- charge because e- never leave the atom, but rather sit on the border of the two.
-charge balanced among atoms
-very stable
-humans are made of covalent bonds
ex. CO2
-carbon is the backbone of covalent bonds!
-carbon, hydrogen and silicon are often in covalent bonds because they have half-filled valence levels so its not easy to lose or gain e, so they share!)


polar covalent bonds

-unequal sharing of e-
-slight (-) charge at one end of molecule, and slight (+) charge at other end
ex. H2O


properties of water

-polar covalent bond
-has covalent and ionic properties
-dipole: has a positive and negative end
-it is cohesive--molecules align and "stick together" due to polarity--negatives stick to positives etc
-it is adhesive in that it can wet things
-widest temp. range as a liquid for any molecule (0-100 centigrade!) making life possible.
-able to stabilize ions in solution (electrolytes) (able to conduct electricity)
-tends to dissolve ionic bonds (its a great solvent)


hydrogen bonds

-electropositive hydrogen (H+) attracts an electronegative atom
-both hydrogen and the electronegative ion it attracts are usually part of a larger compound.
-water forms hydrogen bonds with itself which gives it many of its properties

ex. H+ and OH- =H2O


types of chemical reactions (3)

1. oxidation-reduction rxns
2. anabolic rxns--an uphill rxn
-requires outside energy to start
-produces more complex product from the reagents
3. catabolic rxns--downhill rxn
-releases energy to the enviro
-produces simpler product from reagents

*anabolic needs "an"-other source of energy to push it uphill.
*catabolic has it's own catalyst and goes on its own downhill.
*-cats- are low maintenance--require less external energy,
kittens (reagents) more complex/needy than adult cats (products)



-most rxns favor disorder


acid-base-salt formula

acid + base --> salt + water

-acids are proton(H+) donors
-bases are hydroxyl(OH-) donors

-in order to be donors, acids and bases must be dissolved in water, which allows them to ionize


common acids

- HCl hydrochloric acid H+ + Cl-
-HNO3 nitric acid H+ + NO3-
-H2SO4 sulfuric acid 2H+ + SO4^-2
-H3PO4 phosphoric acid 3H+ + PO4^-3
-H2CO3 carbonic acid 2H+ + CO3^-2


common bases

-NaOH sodium hydroxide Na+ + OH-
-KOH potassium hydroxide K+ + OH-
-NH4OH ammonium hydroxide NH4+ + OH-
-Mg(OH)2 magnesium hydroxide Mg+2 +2OH-
-Al(OH)3 aluminum hydroxide Al+3 + 3OH-1



-molecules that resist a change in pH in a water soln.
-only work in a narrow range:
- acidic buffers: pH 3-6
- neutral buffers: pH 6-8
- basic buffers: pH 8-10



-internally covalent
-externally ionic

OH-1 hydroxyl
NO3-1 nitrate
CO3-2 carbonate
SO4-2 sulfate
PO4-3 phosphate
NH4+1 ammonium
* (oh) no co so po...(ammonium)
subscripts (1)-3-3-4-4-(1)
superscripts (1)-1-2-2-3(-1)