Flashcards in Lectures 7-15, Jasna part 2 Deck (18):
Explain the properties of a bacteria cytoplasmic membrane
Fluid-mosaic model, embedded proteins, somewhat fluid, stabilized by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and ionic bonds
What are capsules and slime layers
Polysaccharide layers that assist in attachment to surfaces and protect against phagocytosis
What are gas vesicles
spindle shaped. gas filled structures made of protein and confer buoyancy in planktonic cells and are impermeable to water
What is the sec system
Collection of proteins that effect translocation for most of the proteins through the membrane of the cell.
What do sec proteins carry
An N-terminal tag called the leader sequence
What does the leader sequence do
Prompts the cell to translocate a protein through the membrane of the cell
What is the two-component regulatory system
A system where prokaryotes regulate cellular metabolism in response to environmental fluctuations
What is quorom sensing
Mechanism by which bacteria assess their population density, ensures a sufficient number of cells are present before initiating a response that requires certain cell density
What are antisense RNAs (small RNA)
Antisense RNA regulates or promotes mRNA translation, transcription of antisense RNA increases when target gene needs to be turned off
What are trans-sRNAs (small RNA)
trans-sRNA binds to mRNA with the help of small proteins called RNA chaperones to regulate translation and increase/decrease stability of mRNA
What are Riboswitches
RNA domains in an mRNA molecule that can bind small molecules to control translation of mRNA.
What are point mutations
Mutations that change only one base pair, can lead to silent, missense or nonsense mutations.
What are induced mutations
Mutations made environmentally or deliberately (exposure from UV or radiation)
What are transposable elements
Segments of DNA that can move from one site to another site on the same or a different molecule.
What is a plasmid
Genetic elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome
Difference between selectable and non-selectable mutations
Selectable mutations have a growth advantage over the parent in specific conditions, where as non-selectable dont and are hard to detect.
What is the purpose of genome sequencing
Identify new components of cells, therapeutic advantages and replication advantages