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Flashcards in Lectures du manuel Deck (81):
1

5 grams is...

1 tsp

2

28.35 grams is...

2 oz

3

100 grams is ...

1/2 cup liquid

4

What is the difference between free and bound water?

Free water is easily separate from the foods, whereas bound water is incorporated into the structure of others nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

5

What are the 3 types of food that have the highest content of water?

1. Fruits and vegetables
2. Whole milk
3. Meats

6

What characteristic of water makes it the hardest compound the heat out of any others?

The hydrogen bonding between water molecules
water's specific heat

7

Does the boiling point of water increases or decreases as the altitude augments?

The boiling point decreases with the elevation in altitude, due to a higher atmospheric pressure

8

What is the difference between hard and soft water?

Hard water has a greater concentration of calcium and magnesium compounds, whereas soft water has a higher sodium concentration.

9

What is "water activity'"?

the amount of water available (free) in foods

10

What is the water activity under which bacterial growth is not supported ?

Under 0,85 aw, bacterias cannot grow because they need water.

11

Oligosaccharides contains from -- to -- units of monosaccharides.

3 to 10 units

12

In what category of carbohydrates are starch and fibers?

polysaccharides

13

How are monosaccharides categorized ?

By the number of carbone they contain

14

what are the most commons pentose?

ribose and arabinose

15

what are the most commons hexoses?

glucose, galactose and fructose

16

Of D-series sugars and L-series sugars, which one is most commonly found in nature?

D-series sugars

17

Which sugar is a component of pectin?

galactose

18

What are the two most commun oligosaccharides?

raffinose and stachyose

19

Does a food need to contain more amylopectine or amylose to form a gel better ?

More amylose in a food increases its ability to form a gel

20

What type of fiber (soluble vs. insoluble) is contained in whole wheat and rye products, as well as in bananas?

Insoluble fibers

21

Soluble and insoluble fibers can be classified now as ....

Functional fibers

22

Total fiber is the sum of...

functional and dietary fibers

23

What type of pectin substance can be used to form a gel in foods? in what type of food is it found?

Pectin
found in ripe, but not overripe food

24

What is the only fiber that is not a carbohydrate? What is it composed of?

Lignin
it contains phenolic alcohols

25

What is the one lipid that will dissolve in water ? and why

acetic acid (responsible for the sour taste of vinegar)
because its molecule is so small

26

vegetable and fish oils are rich in .... (type of fatty acid)

polyunsaturated compounds

27

canola and olive oils are rich in ... (type of fatty acid)

monounsaturated compounds

28

animal fats, coconut and palms oils are riche in... (type of fatty acid)

saturated compounds

29

What is the number of a gram of plant sterol esters that a food must contain to be claimed to reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases?

0.65 gram of plant sterol esters

30

What are the basic amino acids? the acidic one?

basic : lysine, arginine and histidine
acidic : glutamic acid and aspartic acid

31

What are 5 important functions of proteins?

Denaturation/coagulation
hydratation
buffering
brownies
enzymes

32

What is the difference between products being enriched vs. fortified in vitamins and minerals?

Foods are fortified to replace vitamins and minerals natural deficiency in the food whereas food are enriched as a result of the loss of vitamins and minerals during the processing of foods

33

What vitamins and minerals can be added to foods in order to act as antioxydants ? and why so?

Vitamines A, C and E, and the mineral selenium are added to foods because the neutralize the free radical in food, increasing shelf life and hence the antioxydant content of the food.

34

Does bacterial genre clostridium causes a bacterial infections, toxin-mediated infections or intoxication? and E.coli?

E.coli : toxin-mediated infection
Clostridium : intoxications

35

Which one of the following is the deadliest : clostridium... perfingens or botulinum - but the foodborne illness it causes?

Clostridium botulinum, but causing the botulism

36

Up to half of healthy humans carry this bacteria, it is also a common cause of sinus infections and infected pimples and boils... what am I?

Staphylococcus aureus

37

What do molds causes?

Mycotoxins, which can cause food intoxication

38

What is the main difference between molds and bacterias?

Molds are visible, whereas bacterias are not

39

What is the only way that viruses can be transmitted?

They are transmitted by oral-fecal route, that is from feces to the mouth.

40

What is the technique during which water is brought to a boil but foods are partially cook? In what occasion could that be used?

Parboiled is used in restaurants where they need to prepare food in advance

41

In baking methods, shiny metal pans are best for....

Cakes or cookies

42

In baking methods, darker and duller metal pans are best for....

breads and pieds

43

In baking methods, what must one do when baking with a glass pan? Why?

Reduce the heat by 25C because food heats faster in glass

44

In broiling methods, are thicker cuts of meats placed closer or further away from the oven heat?

Thicker cuts are placed farther away from the heat whereas thinner cuts are placed closer to the heating sources.

45

What is the difference between grilling and barbecuing?

In barbecuing, foods are cooked over slow heat whereas in grilling, foods are cooked sometimes directly over the heating source and the heat cannot be controlled like in a barbecue

46

Which heat transferring methods use radiation ?

Broiling, grilling and microwaving

47

What is the most frequently used knife?

The chef's of French knife

48

3 tsp is ....

1 Tbsp

49

8 oz is ....

1 cup

50

2C is....

1 pint

51

2 pints is...

1 quarts (qt)

52

2 Tbsp is...

1 oz

53

4 qts is...

1 gallon

54

A fluid ounce measures volume or weight?

Volume

55

An ounce measures volume or weight?

Weight

56

What is silicon dioxide used for as an additive?

Silicon dioxide may be used as an ink diluent for marking fruits and vegetables

57

Why are some vegetables coated in wax?

To prevent moisture loss

58

What can canned vegetables contain as additives?

EDTA as a preservative and flavoring agents including salt and sucrose

59

What is baking soda used as an additive on vegetables?

Sodium bicarbonate is used to clean vegetables and to absorb excess acid in some canned products

60

How are BHT and BHA used for as an additive on vegetables?

BHT and BHA are preservatives and antioxydants that are used in dried potato flakes, cereals and other processed foods.

61

What is the most frequent alternative additive used instead of sulfate?

ascorbic acid

62

Why are goji berries only exported dried or, for example, in juice form?

Because they are highly perishable

63

What does the FDA and USDA say about the term "superfruit"?

It has no official definition from the FDA or USDA

64

What are 5 techniques used to limit enzymatic browning in fruits?

Denaturing enzymes by blanching fruits
Reducing the pH with citrus fruit juices
Reducing the temperature
Coating the fruits in sugar or water
Adding antioxydants such as ascorbic acid

65

What are 3 treatments the change the color of fruits?

Heating fruit changes the pH which affects the color of some pigments
Metal salts on the lining of cans can reaction with the acids in the fruits and vegetables to change their color
Exposing some fruits to ethylene gas is shown to facilitate ripening, hence change their color

66

What are 3 changes that occur during the heating of fruits?

The conversion of protopectin to pectin
The degradation of cellulose to hemicellulose
The denaturation of cell-membrane proteins

67

What characterizes climacteric fruits?

Climacteric fruits experience an increased respiratory rate right before they are fully ripe - so they continue to ripen after they are being harvested

68

What characterizes non-climacteric fruits?

Other fruits and most vegetables are non-climacteric, so although they have the same or a lower respiratory rate after they are harvested, it is best to harvest them when they are fully ripe.

69

What nutrients are contained in the aleurone layer?

The aleurone layer, just beneath the bran, contains phosphorus, protein, thiamin and other B vitamins, and some fats.

70

The bran is an excellent source of....

fiber and minerals

71

The starch in the endosperm makes grains an excellent source of....

complex carbohydrates

72

What parts of the grain are in whole grain flour?

Endosperm, bran and germ

73

What is the germ rich is?

Fat, incomplete protein, vitamins and minerals

74

What are the two preservatives often added to cereal grains?

BHT and BHA because cereal grains would deteriorate quickly without antioxydant to preserve the produce's freshness

75

Name the grains in order in primary importance in the world, in descending order.

corn
rice
wheat
barley
sorghum
millets
oats
rye

76

Which type of flour is usually used in the production of pastas?

Semolina, a flour derived from durum wheat

77

Pastas are normally enriched with...

B vitamins and iron

78

Name the 8 types of pastas

noodles
asian noodles
Whole wheat
Flavored (added to the dough)
Fanciful (unusual shapes)
High-protein pasta
Fresh
Couscous

79

How can pasta be referred to as noodles?

When eggs make at least 5,5% of the weight

80

How do asian noodles appear?

Clear and translucent

81

Where should whole wheat flour be kept?

In a refrigerated section