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Flashcards in Leisure and Aging Midterm Deck (33)
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Define Aging

Time Dependent biological process that is not a disease but involves functional loss and susceptibility to disease and death


Chronological Age

How old we are in numbers, the time we have been alive


Biological Age

Related to the processes in the body and how they change over time


Functional age

Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness


Fertility Rate

Number of live births per year / 1000 women of reproductive age


Life expectancy

Length of time someone born in a specific year can expect to live


Median Age

Age at which half the population is older and half is younger


What does a higher median age mean

Aging population


What are the 3 future global trends of aging

1) Birth rate is decreasing in developed countries
2) by 2050 people over 65 will be higher than population of children.
3) We have an aging population


What are the challenges with an aging population in a MDC?

-Competition for resources
- dependency ratio more people retired than working
- strain on national budget (healthcare/ pensions)


What are the challenges with an aging LDC?

-Poor economies
-rapid societal aging
- urbanization movement of youth


According to the model of meaningful leisure what influences leisure

- national government
- national economy
- the individual (time, income, leisure knowledge and skills, and leisure participation)


What is gerotranscendence

-Release the need for control as part of accepting mortality.
-increased attachment to younger generations
- no fear of death
-self- confrontation
- social and personal relations


What is selective optimization with compensation?

Is how older adults adapt to age related losses to maintain quality of life. Selects more meaningful activities, optimizing more restricted number of activities, and compensating strategically for limitations to preserve involvement in preferred activity.


What is substitution theory?

Conditions in which one activity may replace another.
- avoids frustration by attempting achievable goals.


Socioemotional selectivity theory

- Limited time left to live
- reduce relationships to only those meaningful
- seek satisfaction in present
- keeps with selective optimization theory


innovation theory

Adopt new leisure later in life.
- innovation can lead to self-preservation or self-reinvention.


Activity Theory

-More activity the happier we are
- more roles = more happy
- social activities outweigh solitary ones


What is disengagement theory?

Naturally withdraw from society as we age, prepares individual and society for death, not supported by science


Continuity Theory

- Concerned with adaptation not number of activities. People continue with leisure they enjoyed early in life, adapt to situations based on patterns developed in earlier life, does not assume one path for aging.


What is free radical theory?

Changes in feel function as a result of damage, mutations and cell damage occurs


What is autoimmune theory?

Immune system declines with age, making us less effective at fighting disease


Cross-Linkage theory

Cells connect themselves to form cross linkages, accumulation of cross linkages causes aging, cells cant repair fast enough.
Affects collagen and connective tissue


Metabolic Theory

Metabolism is directly related to rate of life.
High metabolism = fast aging


Explain Normal Aging

- stable across adult years
- declines due to illness with age are expected
- steady declines will occur for all individuals.
- rapid/ acute changes are a result of disease
- we naturally compensate for losses.
-society and culture have an influence on aging.


Discuss vascular dementia

Brain's blood supply is blocked or damaged causing brain cells to be deprived of oxygen and die.
Risk factors- Stroke and TIA
Can lower risk through factors that lower risk of stroke- healthy diet, not smoking, etc
Causes changes in the ability to make decisions, plan, or organize
Difficulty with movement, slow gait and poor balance


What are the implication of vascular dementia for TRs

-Responsive behaviours
-Skin Breakdown
-Pacing/purposeful walking


What are TR interventions for vascular dementia?

-Sensory stimulation
-Stress reduction
-Leisure time
-Physical exercise
-Routine development
-Validation techniques
-Music therapy
-Plenty of time to complete tasks.


Discuss the leadership consideration when planning for the older adult

-Be aware of health issues
-Focus on individual capabilities
-Ensure social interaction
-Offer intergenerational experiences,
-Enable independence
-Introduce new activities
-Treat people with respect


What is ageism?

Refers to a complex form of social oppression based on age, similar to prejudice based on race, gender, etc
Includes a set of social relations that discriminate against older people and set them apart as different by defining them in a stereotypical way