Leisure, Sport, and Tourism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Leisure, Sport, and Tourism Deck (31)
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Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time.



A leisure-time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment, including organised and non-paid sports.



A physical activity involving events and competitions at the national and international scale with professional participants.



Travelling away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure. This excludes day trips, some of which may be international trips.



Tourism focusing on the natural environments and local communities.


Heritage Tourism

Tourism based on a historical legacy such as a landscape feature, historic building or event as its major attraction.


Sustainable Tourism

Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people.


2 Types of Resources for an Area to Grow
- Define
- Examples

1. Primary/Recreational Resources
Examples: Climate, Scenery, Cultural and Heritage Sites.

2. Secondary/Recreational Resources
Examples: Accommodation, Entertainment, and Shopping.


Participation Rate

The proportion of a population that takes part in a specific sporting activity.


Factors Affecting Participation in Sports (PHSC) and give examples

Physical Factors
- Coastal Areas, ideal conditions of surfing.
- High Altitude Areas, higher concentration of red blood cells in Kenya.

Human Factors
- Economic Wealth, access to sporting facilities like golf courses.

Social Factors
- Membership fees associated with sports may lead to inability to practice.

Cultural Factors
- Muslim women in athletics, convention to remain robed.


Advantages of Hosting a Sports Competition
Advantages: PENIP
Disadvantages: FTOIL

Prestige: If it goes well, host gains reputation.
Economic Growth: Boosts trade and tourism.
National Unity: Brings country together, sense of pride.
Infrastructure: Builds permanent facilities to host events.
Profit: Selling merchandise, tickets, and spending moneY in hotels and restaurants.

Financial Loss: Spending exceeds earnings, Montreal lost 1 billion dollars in 1976.
Terrorism: Shooting of Israeli athletes at 1972 Munich Olympics.
Overcrowding: Puts a strain on hotels, transport, etc.
Increased Security Risk: Large events are targets for terrorists.
Loss of esteem: Host country falls if events goes poorly.


Steps of Butler's Model (E,I,D,C,S,D/R)

1. Exploration
Small group of tourists attracted to an area, minimal impact due to lack of tourist facilities.

2. Involvement
Locals accept tourists and the location becomes better known.

3. Development
Tourism becomes a big business, infrastructure is improved through investments from MEDCs.

4. Consolidation
Tourism becomes an important industry in an area. Agricultural land becomes hotels. Beaches/Pool reserved for tourists.

5. Stagnation
Local opposition, fewer new tourists arrive. Optimal point.

6. Decline/Rejuvenation
Area either decreases or increases in population.



A "green" or "alternative" form of tourism that aims to preserve the environment by managing it sustainably.


Leakage and Example

Economic loss of tourist money, by tourists using companies not owned by the host country, and spending money outside the host country.

Example = Transnational Corporations such as the Hilton hotel company.


Multiplier Effect

When an initial amount of spending by the government leads to an increased spending by tourists and so results in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending.



Within the limits of our resources so that human needs can be met indefinitely.


Physical Carrying Capacity

The measure of absolute space, for example, the number of spaces within a car park


Ecological Carrying Capacity

The level of use that an environment can sustain before environmental damage occurs.


Perceptual Carrying Capacity

The level of crowding that a tourist will tolerate before deciding that a location is too full.



A location that attracts a large number of tourists. Antigua in Guatemala would be considered a honeypot location in Central America.


Niche Tourism

Tourism that involves products being tailored to meet the needs of a particular audience.


Possible Tourist attractions at a destination (CLCS) and Tourist deterrents at a destination. (DEPH)


Exchange Rate
Political Unrest


Benefits of Tourism as a Development Strategy

Employment: Tourism is labour-Intensive, thus creating many jobs both in rural and Urban Areas.

New Skills: Improved skill in languages, catering, and entertainment.

Multiplier Effect: Income gained is circulated through the local economy by the purchasing of products in the host area.


Benefits/Risks of Tourism in Small Island Developing States

- Contain many natural attractions such as coasts, mountains, ecosystems.
- Tourism isn't restricted by tariffs or quotas.

- Transport costs are high
- Domestic demand is too weak to compensate for lost international revenue.


Carrying Capacity

The maximum number of visitors or participants that a site or event can satisfy at one time.


Intra-Urban Spacial Patterns
- Four Major Sections

1. Central Area
Concentration of leisure facilities and tourist attractions.
Examples: Restaurants, Cinemas, Museums.

2. Transitional Zone
Local Parks, Swimming Pools, Social Clubs.

3. Suburbs
School Communities, Sport pitches, locations needing more space.

4. Urban-Rural Fringe
Hotels with leisure complexes.


Possible Case Studies:
1. Leisure at the International Scale - Sport
2. Ecotourism
3. Tourism as a development strategy

1. 2008 Beijing Olympics
- 17 Billions dollars Creation of 720 green spaces in Beijing
- Reduced air pollution by 45%

2. Ecotourism in Belize
- Aim was to preserver extensive forest habitats of HOWLER MONKEYS, succeeded.
- More tourists led to the degradation of coral reefs, black band disease, eutrophication of freshwater.

3. Tourism as a development strategy in the Maldives
- Tourism accounts for 28% of GDP.
- Attempts to diversify the economy, while encouraging foreign investments.


A) Referring to the digram, outline two differences you would expect to find between "local parks and open spaces" and a "country park".

Possible Differences:
- Size
- Range of Facilities Available
- Number
- Origin of Visitors/Catchment area size.


B) Explain three reasons why it is important for city planners to ensure that there are sufficient open spaces for urban residents.

Possible Reasons:
- Escape from Urban Stress
- Ecological Understanding and Sustainability
- Preserve Natural and Urban Heritage (Museums/Religious Sites)
- Individual and Community Health Benefits


C) With reference to a named urban area, examine the factors that have influenced the location and distribution of leisure facilities, other than open spaces.

Responses Should:
- Identify the balance between demand for, and supply of, leisure facilities in urban areas and factors that would affect their location.
- Examples: Government Planning and Policy, Market influences, Changing Leisure habits, land use changes, and Land value changes.


How to make Tourism Environmentally, Socially/Culturally, and Economically Sustainable.

- Use renewable energy sources to power tourist facilities.
- Set quotas to limit the amount of tourists visiting an area.

- Promote Local Culture, food, clothes, dance, involves locals.
- Educate tourists on how to respect local traditions.
- Introduce minimal wage that is a liveable income.

- Avoid debt when constructing tourist developments.
- Minimise economic leakage.