Len disease (other than cataracts) Flashcards Preview

Veterinary Ophthalmology > Len disease (other than cataracts) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Len disease (other than cataracts) Deck (42):
1

What is septic lens implantation syndrome? What is the prognosis?

Penetrating injury leading to introduction of bacteria (or rarely fungi) into the eye, leading to a slowly progressive or delayed-onset endophalmitis, lens capsule rupture, and lenticular abscessation. This causes uveitis and secondary glaucoma.

Poor prognosis

2

What are common causes of septic lens implantation syndrome?

Cat scratch (#1) or phacoemulsification

3

What species has septic lens implantation syndrome been described in? What is the one breed that has been associated with the disease and when?

Described in dogs and cats; labrador is only known associated breed (with phacoemulsification)

4

What is the difference between phacolytic and phacoclastic uveitis? Include CAUSE and SEVERITY.

Phacoclastic uveitis:
- traumatic lens capsule rupture
- sudden exposure of T cells to protein
- severe, requires surgery (phaco) to avoid loss of globe

Phacolytic uveitis:
- a MILD lymphocytic-plasmocytic uveitis (phacoLYtic is is LESS severe)
- secondary to release of lens protein through an intact lens capsule (as in RAPIDLY DEVELOPING or HYPERMATURE CATARACT)
- low dose of proteins cause T cell tolerance
- presumptive Dx based on observation of cataract

5

What is the main issue with microphakia?

May increase risk of luxation

6

What 2 conditions is microphakia possibly associated with?

1. Spherophakia
2. Microphthalmos (small globe)

7

What is lenticonus?

A cone-shaped defect on one aspect of the lens (like a pimple on the lens)

8

Where on the lens does lenticonus usually occur?

The posterior pole of the lens

9

Although lenticonus is usually not a big deal, what is one thing that can happen that is very bad?

Posterior capsule is malformed = can get rupture of lens capsule = phacoclastic uveitis

10

What breeds have an inherited increased likelihood to lens luxation?

Border Collie

Terriers: Cairn, Jack Russell, Lakeland, Manchester, Miniature Bull, Norfolk, Norwich, Scottish, Skye, Sealyham, Smoothhaired Fox, Westie, Tibetan, Wirehaired Fox

11

Lens luxation and glaucoma-- explain chicken or egg?

Glaucoma --> buphthalmia --> stretch zonules --> luxation

Luxation --> secondary glaucoma

12

How can luxation or subluxation lead to glaucoma? (4 ways)

1. Entrapment of lens in anterior chamber (angle closure and/or pupil block)
2. Synechiae with iris bombe (pupil block)
3. Anterior vitreous prolapse (pupil block)
4. Inflammation within anterior segment, causing low-grade trauma to iris and ciliary body --> release of melanin --> inflammation and glaucoma

13

What is the issue with lens removal when in the posterior segment?

It can adhere to retina and pulling it out can detach the retina

14

In the dog, how can anterior lens luxation present (in regard to cornea)?

Corneal edema

15

What age do you start to see the ring formed in the lens indicating earliest nuclear sclerosis?

6 years

16

How much of the lens is affected with lenticular sclerosis?

The nucleus only... hence also being called nuclear sclerosis

17

What are the common signs that a dog is having difficulty seeing from lenticular sclerosis?

1. Hesitating going DOWN stairs
2. Hesitating going into a dark room
3. Bobbing head when food is dropped

18

What are 6 causes of SECONDARY lens luxation in dogs?

1. Glaucoma
2. Chronic uveitis
3. Trauma
4. Age
5. Neoplasia
6. Hypermature cataract as they shrink

19

Aphakia causes what change in vision (in D)?

+15D (THICK glasses)

20

If you have a glaucomatous eye secondary to a lens luxation, what should you NOT do in terms of treatment?

Give dilating agents (lens may move anteriorly OR dilation may close drainage angles, precipitating glaucomatous crisis)

21

What is pseudophakia

An implanted intraocular lens

22

Where does the lens sit (structure)

Patellar fossa or hyaloid fossa (depression in vitreous)

23

What is pathognomic for lens subluxation

Aphakic crescent

24

When are mydriatic agents appropriate for lens luxation (3)?

1. Couching procedure
2. Pupillary block
3. Post-lensectomy to prevent synechiae, improve comfort, and stabilize lens-ocular barrier

25

What tends to cause lens luxation in cats?

Inflammation

26

What work-up is recommended if there is a lens luxation in a cat?

Look for infectious causes (to help r/o uveitis as a cause)- FeLV/FIV, FIP, Toxo, etc

27

Why does retinal detachment sometimes follow lens luxation [NOTE: not bc of vitreous prolapse]

When partially luxated, lens pulls on zonules at focal spots = can detach retina

28

What meds are appropriate with a lens luxation and secondary glaucoma? [specifically, for the glaucoma]

Carbon anhydrase inhibitors and beta blockers

29

What drugs are appropriate for subluxated lenses?

Miotics-- helps stabilize the lens and can keep it from luxating completely for 1-2+ years

30

What 3 sequelae are common with luxated lenses? (and with lensectomy)

1. Glaucoma [also lensectomy]
2. Retinal detachment [also lensectomy]
3 Uveitis (from lens moving around)

31

How is the vitreous affected by lens luxation?

It tends to degenerate due to lens motion against it, and then prolapses into anterior chamber

32

Why is anterior lens luxation NOT as uncomfortable in cats as it is to dogs? (note SIZE of lens)

Canine lens is 0.5 mL (anterior chamber 0.4 mL) vs feline lens 0.3 mL and anterior chamber 0.6mL

33

In Jack Russels that are homozygous for the gene that causes lens luxation, what is the likelihood and age for bilateral lens luxation?

Both lenses usually luxate by 4-8 years of age

34

Does a couching procedure usually work?

Usually not long-term

35

What is the difference between phacoclastic uveitis and septic lens implantation syndrome?

SLIS involves bacterial cause setting off the uveitis and NOT the release of lens proteins. Phacoclastic uveitis is sterile.

36

Where in a lens will a lens coloboma be seen?

Equator

37

What causes lens coloboma?

Focal area where the zonules aren't applying tension

38

What causes spherophakia?

Diffuse lack of zonular tension

39

What is persistent tunica vasculosa lentis?

Congenital problem where the capillary network of the posterior and lateral lens persists

40

Does persistent tunica vasculosa lentis cause vision problems?

NO-- it is a very thin, mesh like membrane

41

What is persistent tunica vasculosa lentis a form of?

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV)

42

2 main ways to get phacoclastic uveitis?

1. diabetics
2. corneal laceration with lens involvement